In alphabetical order:

aceto balsamico See balsamic vinegar.

acidulated water To make your own: 1 part vinegar or lemon juice plus 5 parts water

apple cider vinegar = cider vinegar
Substitutes: raspberry vinegar OR rice vinegar OR champagne vinegar (milder) OR wine vinegar

balsamic vinegar = aceto balsamico
Pronunciation: ball-SAM-ick
Substitutes: Hey, don't be so cheap. Nothing is like a good balsamic vinegar and you deserve it. You only need a few drops. And don't buy that stuff they sell at mega-grocery stores. Or if you do, pour it into a saucepan and reduce it by at least a third. But really, please, go to an Italian speciality store and lay out at least $30 for a ten year old bottle. It will last you for a long time.

champagne vinegar
Substitutes: raspberry vinegar (not as mild) OR white wine vinegar (not as mild) OR rice vinegar (not as mild) OR apple cider vinegar (not as mild)

Chekiang vinegar See Chinese black vinegar.

Chenkong vinegar See Chinese black vinegar. It's just right down there.

Chinese black vinegar = Chekiang vinegar = Chenkong vinegar = Chinkiang vinegar
Substitutes: balsamic vinegar OR apple cider vinegar combined with Worcestershire sauce.

Chinkiang vinegar Heads up. It's Chinese black vinegar.

cider vinegar

distilled vinegar

malt vinegar
Substitutes: Believe it or not, lemon juice.

pickled plum vinegar See umeboshi vinegar.

plum vinegar See umeboshi vinegar.

raspberry vinegar
Substitutes: sherry vinegar (especially with poultry) OR champagne vinegar (milder) OR red wine vinegar OR black currant vinegar OR rice vinegar OR apple cider vinegar.

red wine vinegar
Substitutes: balsamic vinegar

rice vinegar
Substitutes: apple cider vinegar OR white wine vinegar OR 3 parts white vinegar + 1 part water seasoned rice vinegar
Substitutes: 1 tablespoon rice vinegar + ½ teaspoon mirin + 1/8 teaspoon salt.

sherry vinegar
Substitutes: balsamic vinegar

tarragon vinegar
Substitutes: 1 teaspoon dried tarragon leaves + 1 C white wine vinegar OR 1 teaspoon dried tarragon leaves + 1 C apple cider vinegar

umeboshi vinegar = umeboshi plum vinegar = ume vinegar = pickled plum vinegar = plum vinegar Substitutes: None really. umeboshi plum vinegar See umeboshi vinegar.

ume vinegar See umeboshi vinegar.

verjuice = verjus
Pronunciation: VER-juice or vehr-ZHOO
Notes: Verjuice is a sour juice made from unripened grapes. Vinegars sometimes create off-tastes in the wines that accompany a meal. Verjuice doesn't, so it's a good substitute for vinegar if you're planning to serve an expensive wine with dinner. Though becoming more popular, it's still hard to find. Look for it in gourmet specialty shops. Or just serve a cheaper wine.

Substitutes: lemon juice (won't keep as long) OR soured wine white vinegar = distilled vinegar
Substitutes:(For canning) cider vinegar (with at least 5% acidity) OR malt vinegar (with at least 5% acidity). But really, this stuff is best for cleaning windows and computer and monitors. white wine vinegar
Substitutes: rice vinegar OR cider vinegar