In this node I will list first the common name of the highway and second the official name(s).
Note that I have restricted this to inside Route 128 (signed mostly as Interstate 93 or Interstate 95). A future revision may include 128 and its family, including the Braintree Split and the Peabody Split.
Central Artery (normally known as 'the Ahtery'): This is the original planning name. It has since been ceremonially named the General Casimir Pulaski Skyway (yes, there's one in Jersey too) and the John F Fitzgerald Expressway. Older signs call it simply 'Expressway'. The highway runs from the Mass Ave interchange south of downtown (which was going to connect to the Inner Belt) to the ghost ramps in Charlestown (where the other end of the Inner Belt was to tie in; two of these ramps are now in use as the Leverett Circle Connector ramps). Common parlance however usually takes it north only to the Charles River bridge; north of the river, southbound is the 'lower deck' and northbound the 'upper deck'. South of Storrow Drive, the Artery is Interstate 93, United States Route 1, and State Route 3. Route 3 exits at Storrow Drive and Route 1 exits just north of the Charles River towards the Tobin Bridge. The Big Dig is a huge construction project to put the downtown Artery underground.
Masspike (normally called 'the Pike'): This was the Massachusetts Turnpike, and this name still appears on old signs, but the authority has since shortened its name to the Masspike. The Pike heads west from the Artery south of downtown towards western Mass, and is the only toll road in Massachusetts that is not a water crossing. The Big Dig is extending the Pike east through the Ted Williams Tunnel to end at Route 1A at Logan Airport. The Masspike is completely cosigned with Interstate 90.
Soldiers Field Road/Storrow Drive: This part-arterial, part-freeway runs along the south bank of the Charles River from the Artery west to near the Newton/Boston line. West of the Eliot Bridge, which crosses the river into Cambridge towards Memorial Drive, Fresh Pond Parkway, and Greenough Boulevard, Soldiers Field Road is a surface road with one interchange (at Western Avenue) and several traffic lights. East of the Eliot Bridge, Soldiers Field Road is a freeway, except for several Harvard driveways. Soldiers Field Road becomes Storrow Drive at the Boston University interchange. Storrow Drive officially ends at Embankment Road at the Back Bay interchange. Embankment Road, officially known as David A Mugar Way, runs north from Beacon Street, merges into Storrow Drive after a block, and ends just after going under the Longfellow Bridge. From the Longfellow Bridge interchange east, Storrow Drive is officially part of Charles Street, which ends at Leverett Circle. A double-decker roadway connects Leverett Circle to the Artery (now only open to/from the south), and new ramps serve the Leverett Circle Connector to/from the north. Currently, all eastbound traffic must stop at a traffic light at Leverett Circle, while westbound traffic uses a tunnel. Eventually, when the Big Dig is complete, eastbound traffic to the Leverett Circle Connector will pass through a tunnel, while traffic to the southbound Artery will still pass through the traffic light. The roadway west of the Back Bay interchange is unnumbered. Embankment Road, from the Back Bay interchange to the Longfellow Bridge interchange, is Route 28, and the Charles Street section is both Route 3 and Route 28. Route 28 leaves to the north at Leverett Circle, and Route 3 continues onto the southbound Artery.
Tobin Bridge: This was originally the Mystic River Bridge, both in the low form connecting Chelsea Street to Broadway and in the current double-decker form. The bridge carries Route 1 between the Artery and the Northeast Expressway.
Northeast Expressway: This carries Route 1 off the north end of the Tobin Bridge, ending at Route 60 in Revere, with ghost ramps continuing through the marshes through Saugus towards Lynn, and Route 1 continuing north as an arterial with no cross traffic, a so-called 'Jersey freeway'.
Sumner Tunnel/Callahan Tunnel: These tunnels carry Route 1A from the Artery downtown to the East Boston Expressway, with the Callahan going northbound and the Sumner southbound. The Sumner was built first, and was originally the East Boston Traffic Tunnel (as opposed to the East Boston Tunnel on the Blue Line).
Ted Williams Tunnel: The first part of the Big Dig to open, the Ted Williams Tunnel currently ends at local streets on the South Boston end, but feeds directly into Route 1A in East Boston, near Logan Airport. Eventually the Pike will extend east into the tunnel, and Interstate 90 will be extended.
Route 1A: Officially known as the East Boston Expressway, this freeway heads north from the Sumner and Callahan Tunnels past Logan Airport. At Route 145, Route 1A becomes the surface McClellan Highway.
Northern Expressway: This is Interstate 93 north of the Charlestown ghost ramps from the Inner Belt, two of which now connect to the Leverett Circle Connector. It is usually known as Route 93.
Southeast Expressway: This is Interstate 93, Route 1, and Route 3 south of the Mass Ave/Melnea Cass Boulevard interchange, where the Inner Belt was to tie in. I believe it is typically known as 'the Expressway', but I am not positive on this. According to mkb, there is or used to be a sign referring to it as the 'S E X-Way'.