are responsible for the production of ATP
. ATP is used as the currency of the cell
, or so says my molecular biology
professor Dr. Niels Bohls
; if you want to do anything as a cell, you must have ATP to power your cellular machinery
. Mitochondria is therefore thought of as the "powerhouse
" of the cell.
That is, if the organism
and uses oxygen as an electron acceptor
, and fish
, for example. If the eukaryote is anaerobic
instead, such as the genera Trichomonas
, hydrogenosomes are present in place of mitochondria.
Hydrogenosomes serve the same function as mitochondria, to convert ADP
to ATP, but lacks cristae
and citric acid cycle enzymes
To convert ADP to ATP, the hydrogenosome must have access to pyruvate
, which is obtained from glucose metabolism
. The pyruvate is oxidized to produce hydrogen
gas, carbon dioxide
gas, and acetate
. The energy liberated from this reaction is used by ATP Synthase
for ATP production.
can sometimes be found living in the cytoplasm
of these eukaryotic cells in a symbiotic relationship
. These methanogens will consume the hydrogen gas produced by the host
organism, resulting in methane
Anaerobic eukaryotes are relatively rare. Ciliates
found in rumen
are an example of such, and yeast
can be considered facultatively aerobic
, meaning they can live without oxygen. According to Roberts (1998), anaerobic eukaryotes evolved
Converted from Brock Biology of Microorganisms, 10th Edition
. Pearson Education, Inc. Upper Saddle River, NJ 07558. Pp 475 - 476.
Roberts, Dave. "Eukaryotes in Extreme Environments." http://www.nhm.ac.uk/zoology/extreme.html.