Spherical coordinates are a generalisation of polar coordinates to three dimensions. Spherical coordinates are based upon a set of three orthogonal coordinate axes, called, as always, x, y, and z. From this, we can define the spherical coordinates of a point by drawing a line from the origin of the coordinate system to the point under consideration.

- The
**radius** is the length of the line joining the point to the origin. It thus ranges from zero to infinity.
- The
**polar angle** is the angle between the line and the positive z-axis. It ranges from 0 to π.
- The
**azimuthal angle** is the angle between the *projection* of the line onto the x-y plane and the positive x-axis (going counter-clockwise). It ranges from 0 to 2π.

There are two prevailing conventions for the notation used for spherical coordinates. The one commonly used by mathematicians denotes the triplet (radius, polar angle, azimuthal angle) as (ρ, φ, θ)^{A}. The one commonly used by physicists denotes the same triplet as (r, θ, φ)^{B}. This can be a source of confusion. For the rest of this writeup, the latter convention will be used.

In terms of Cartesian coordinates, the spherical coordinates are given by:

r = (x^{2} + y^{2} + z^{2})^{1/2}

θ = arccos(z/r)

φ = arctan(y/x)

and in terms of spherical coordinates, the Cartesian coordinates are:

x = r sin θ cos φ

y = r sin θ sin φ

z = r cos φ

The volume element in spherical coordinates is:

dV = r^{2}sin θ dr dθ dφ

Sometimes, especially in cartography, the latitude is used instead of the polar angle, where the latitude of a point is defined as the angle between the line to that point and the x-y plane. It therefore runs from -π/2 to π/2 and is equal to (π/2 - θ).

Spherical coordinates are best used where there is some measure of spherical symmetry to the problem. Alternatives to spherical coordinates are cylindrical coordinates and Cartesian coordinates (also called rectangular coordinates).

References:

^{A}: C.H. Edwards and D.E. Penney, Calculus with Analytic Geometry, Fifth Edition, 1998.

^{B}: G.B. Arfken and H.J. Weber, Mathematical Methods for Physicists, Fifth Edition, 2001.

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This writeup is copyright 2001-2004 D.G. Roberge and is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-NoDerivs-NonCommercial licence. Details can be found at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd-nc/2.0/ .