Sunshine, in the form of ultra-violet radiation, passes through the ozone layer on its way to the planet's surface. When it hits the ground it is converted to infra-red radiation and reflected back into the atmosphere, and from there into space.

Greenhouse gases trap the infra-red radiation and reflect it back towards earth, heating the planet up. Glass performs a similar function in a greenhouse.

Greenhouse gases include :

The concentration of most of these gases in the atmosphere has increased by 25% since industrialisation began.

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