John Philip Sousa
Born November 6, 1854 in Washington, D.C., Died March 6, 1932 in Reading, PA.

The favorite composer of John Varley's Titanides, John Phillip Sousa is synonymous with military marches, patriotism and the Fourth of July. Marches that are well known, even to people who don't know their names or even that Sousa was involved include The Stars and Stripes Forever Washington Post, Semper Fidelis and the Monty Python's Flying Circus theme.

Sousa did not invent the sousaphone, which is sort of a bass tuba; although it was named for him, was used by his bands, and indeed was built based on his suggestions.
First, a few anecdotes from Sousa's own The Experiences of a Bandmaster :
Leading the US Marine Band from 1880 to 1892, Sousa served under presidents Rutherford Hayes, James Garfield, Chester Arthur, Grover Cleveland and Benjamin Harrison. Sousa says
They were all very appreciative of music, and in this respect were quite unlike General Grant, of whom it is said that he knew only two tunes, one of which was Yankee Doodle and the other wasn't!

Once, on the occasion of a state dinner, President Arthur requested the song Cachuca. Sousa explained that they didn't have the music but would do it next time. Arthur responds "Why, Sousa, I thought you could play anything. I'm sure you can; now give us the 'Cachuca.'"

One of the band members remembered the melody and played it over softly on his cornet to Sousa, who hastily wrote out several parts for the leading instruments, and told the rest of the band to vamp in the key of E flat. Then they played the "Cachuca" to the satisfaction of Mr. Arthur, who said: "There, I knew you could play it."


During the Chicago World's Fair the Sousa Band gave nightly concerts. One beautiful night in June fully ten thousand people were gathered round the bandstand while they played a medley of popular songs.

Director Tomlins, of the World's Fair Choral Association, who was on the stand, turned to the crowd and motioned the people to join him in singing. With the background of the stately buildings of the White City, this mighty chorus, led by the band, sang the songs of the people - Home Sweet Home, Suwanee River, Annie Laurie, My Old Kentucky Home etc., and never did the familiar melodies sound so grandly beautiful.


In a little Michigan town the Sousa Band was booked for an afternoon concert, and on their arrival the local manager assured us that they should have a good house, although there was no advance sale. He explained this by saying that the townspeople did not like to buy their tickets until the last minute.

The theatre was on the second floor of the town hall, the ground floor being given over to the fire department. Twenty minutes before the concert a large crowd had gathered round the box office to buy tickets when the fire-alarm sounded, and the entire population promptly deserted the muse of music and escorted the engine and hose-cart to the scene of action, leaving the band absolutely without an audience.


A chronology of his life and works :
November 6, 1854
Sousa is born in Washington, D.C., the 3rd of 10 children born to John Antonio Sousa and Maria Elisabeth Trinkhaus. His father was born in Spain of Portuguese parents, and plays trombone in the U.S. Marine Band. His mother was born in Bavaria.
1860
Begins to study solfeggio, voice, violin, piano, flute, cornet, baritone, trombone and alto horn. The Civil War begins.
1865
Sousa organizes and leads his quadrille orchestra, consisting of seven adults plus himself.
1866
Sousa changes music teachers, beginning studies with George Felix Benkert, who had trained in Vienna with the famed theorist Simon Sechter. Benkert provides sophisticated training in composition, harmony, counterpoint and orchestration. At the same time, Sousa played first violin for Benkert's Washington Orchestral Union, as well as performing for regular Tuesday evening string quartet concerts at the home of the Assistant Secretary of State William Hunter.
1867
After an unsuccessful attempt to run away with a circus band, Sousa is enlisted in the Marines as an apprentice.
1872
Publishes first composition, Moonlight on the Potomac Waltzes.
1873
Sousa is an active violinist in theatre orchestras, including Ford's Theatre and the Washington Theatre Comique a.k.a. vaudeville.
Composes the marches Salutation and Review a.k.a. Opus 5
1875
Discharged from Marines. Begins performing (on violin). Conducts Gilbert and Sullivan's H.M.S. Pinafore on Broadway.
Composes the march The Phoenix March
1876
Plays in the first violin section of the official centennial orchestra playing for guest conductor Jacques Offenbach
Composes the marches Revival march and The Honored Dead
1877
Composes the march Across the Danube or Opus 36.
1878
Provides orchestrations for an American performance of Gilbert and Sullivan's Sorcerer.
Composes the march Esprit de Corps
1879
In February, meets Jane van Middlesworth Bellis during Pinafore rehearsals; they marry December 30, 1879.
Composes the marches On the Tramp, Resumption March and Globe and Eagle.
Composes the operetta Katherine
1880
Returns to Washington in September to assume leadership of the US Marine Band.
Composes the marches Recognition March and Our Flirtation
1881
Composes the marches Right Forward, Guide Right, Yorktown Centennial, President Garfield's Inauguration March a.k.a. Opus 131 and In Memoriam a.k.a. Garfield's Funeral March.
Composes the operetta Florine
1882
Composes the march Congress Hall
Composes the operetta The Smugglers
1883
Composes the marches Bonnie Annie Laurie, Right-Left, Transit of Venus, Pet of the Petticoats and Mother Goose.
1884
Composes the march The White Plume
1885
Composes the marches Mother Hubbard March, Triumph of Time, Sound Off and Mikado March
Composes the operetta The Queen of Hearts
1886
Composes the marches The Rifle Regiment and The Gladiator
1887
Composes the march The Occidental
1888
Composes the marches Ben Bolt, Semper Fidelis, National Fencibles and The Crusader
Composes the operetta The Wolf
1889
Composes the marches The Quilting party march, The Washington Post, The Thunderer and The Picador
1890
Composes the marches Corcoran Cadets, The Loyal Legion and The High School Cadets
1891
Composes the marches The Wolverine March and Homeward Bound
1892
Sousa leaves the US Marine Band and starts the Sousa Band, briefly called Sousa's New Marine Band. After, band leader Patrick Gilmore's death in St. Louis, nineteen of Gilmore's former musicians eventually join Sousa's band.
The first Sousa Band concert was performed September 26, 1892 at Stillman Music Hall in Plainfield, NJ.
Composes the marches The Belle of Chicago, The Triton, On Parade a.k.a. The Lion Tamer and March of the Royal Trumpets.
1893
Composes the marches The Beau Ideal, Manhattan Beach and The Liberty Bell a.k.a. The Theme from Monty Python's Flying Circus.
Composes the operettas Desiree and The Devil's Deputy
Composes the suite The Last Days of Pompeii
1894
Composes the march The Directorate
1895
Sousa's first successful operetta, El Capitan, debuts.
Composes the march King Cotton
Composes the operetta El Capitan
Composes the suite Three Quotations
1896
Composes The Stars and Stripes Forever, now the official march of the United States of America, on Christmas Day. Also composes the march El Capitan.
1897
Composes the march The Bride Elect
Composes the operetta The Bride Elect
1898
Writes is memoirs in The Experiences of a Band Master
Composes the march The Charlatan
Composes the operetta The Charlatan a.k.a. The Mystical Miss
1899
Composes the marches Hands Across the Sea and The Man Behind the Gun
Composes the operetta Chris and the Wonderful Lamp
1900
The Sousa Band tours Europe.
Composes the march Hail to the Spirit of Liberty
1901
Second European tour.
Composes the marches The Pride of Pittsburgh a.k.a. Homage to Pittsburgh and The Invincible Eagle
1902
Composes the march Imperial Edward
Composes the suite Looking Upward
1903
Composes the march Jack Tar
1904
Composes the march The Diplomat
Composes the suite At the King's Court
1905
Third European tour.
Composes the operetta The Free Lance
1906
Composes the march The Free Lance
1907
Composes the march Powhatten's Daughter
1908
Composes the march The Fairest of the Fair
1909
Composes the march The Glory of the Yankee Navy
Composes the operetta The American Maid a.k.a. The Glass Blower
Composes the suite People Who Live in Glass Houses
1910
World Tour: New York, Great Britain, Canary Islands, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Fiji, Hawaii and Canada.
Composes the march The Federal
Composes the suite Dwellers of the Western World
1911
Composes the suite Tales of a Traveler
1913
Composes the march From Maine to Oregon
Composes the operetta The Irish Dragoon
1914
Composes the marches Colombia's Pride and The Lambs' March
1915
Composes the marches The Pathfinder of Panama and The New York Hippodrome
Composes the operetta The Victory
1916
Composes the marches America First, March of the Pan Americans and Boy Scouts of America.
1917
Sousa joins the US Naval Reserve at age 62. He is assigned the rank of lieutenant and paid a salary of $1 per month.
Composes the marches Liberty Loan, The White Rose, Wisconsin Forever Forward, U.S. Fields Artillery and The Naval Reserve.
1918
Composes the marches Anchor and Star, Sabre and Spurs, Solid Men to the Front, Flags of Freedom, USAAC March, The Volunteers, Wedding March and The Chantyman's March.
1919
Composes the marches Bullets and Bayonets and The Golden Star
1920
Composes the marches On the Campus, Who's Who in Navy Blue and Comrades of the Legion
Composes the suite Camera Studies
1921
Composes the march Keeping Step with the Union
1922
Composes the marches The Dauntless Battalion and The Gallant Seventh
Composes the suites Leaves from My Notebook and Impressions at the Movies
1923
Composes the marches Nobles of the Shrine and March of the Mitten Men a.k.a. Power and Glory
1924
Composes the marches Ancient and Honorable Artillery Company, Marquette University March and The Black Horse Troop.
1925
Composes the marches Universal Peace and The National Game
Composes the suite Cubaland
1926
Composes the marches Old Ironsides, Sesquicentennial Exposition March, The Pride of the Wolverines and The Gridiron Club.
1927
Composes the marches The Atlantic City Pageant, Riders for the Flag, The Minnesota March and Magna Carta
1928
Writes his autobiography Marching Along.
Composes the marches Golden Jubilee, University of Nebraska, Prince Charming and New Mexico.
1929
Composes the marches Daughters of Texas, University of Illinois, The Royal Welch Fusiliers No. 1, Foshay Tower Washington Memorial and La Flor de Sevilla
1930
Composes the marches George Washington Bicentennial, The Royal Welch Fusiliers No. 2, The Legionnaires, The Salvation Army, The Wildcats a.k.a. Salute to Kansas and Harmonica Wizard.
1931
Composes the marches The Aviators, Kansas Wildcats, Northern Pines, The Circumnavigators Club and A Century of Progress.
1932
Sousa dies on March 6, 1932 in Reading, PA, at age 77, after conducting a rehearsal of the Ringgold Band. The last piece he conducted was The Stars and Stripes Forever.

The best source for general information is http://www.dws.org/sousa/

Other sources I used include
http://stevenestrella.com/composers/composerfiles/sousa1932.html
http://www.infography.com/content/270453954241.html
http://www.loc.gov/rr/hispanic/portam/sousa.html

The full text of The Experiences of a Band Master can be found at http://ibiblio.org/pub/docs/books/gutenberg/etext01/sousa10.txt

The Sousa Foundation at http://www.loyno.edu/sousafoundation/ was no help at all.

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