James Carroll (Timi Kara)
1858 - 1926
James Carroll was the son of a Pakeha (European Colonist) father and a
Maori mother, and was born in Wairoa, New Zealand. He left school at 12, to
help on his father’s sheep station, before becoming interested in politics. In 1887, he
won the Eastern Maori electorate, then in 1894 won the general electorate of Waiapu
(now Gisbourne). He was the first Maori to hold a general electorate, and this he
held until 1919.
James Carroll encouraged assimilation (Maori adoption of Pakeha culture), and
was an influential member of the Young Maori Party. In 1900, he reccommended to
the government that the Maori Lands Administration Act (with Apirana Ngata) and
the Maori Councils Act be passed, and this happened.
He was a member of the Liberal Party, and strongly believed that Maori should
adopt Pakeha practices, in order to become a social and economic success, like he
himself had become.
James Carroll was:
- The first Maori to be knighted
- The first Maori to serve as acting Prime Minister
- The first Maori Minister of Native Affairs
- The first Maori to hold a general electorate
Maori and Pakeha (Race Relations 1912-1980) :- Mark Sheehan