In Mongolia, still revered as a national hero, demigod, and celebrity, despite 70 years of Communist rule, when "officially" he was treated as an embarassing barbarian. With the fall of Communist support, and the move towards democracy, Mongolia has once again embraced its cultural heritage.

Genghis Khan's current celebrity has his face and name (also spelled Chinggis) adorning beer labels, hotels, restaurant signs, television programs, ISPs, a college, and a bank(In 2000, the ailing Agricultural Bank of Mongolia rebranded itself by using its acronym XAAH, which transliterates to "Khan." Within a year it had 90% brand recognition).

Sources:
Morrow, J. Peter. "Marketing for Profit in the Land of the Khans." Development Alternatives, Inc. Spring 2002. <http://www.dai.com/dai_news/text_only/spring-mongolia_text_only.htm> (9 November 2002)
Tsetsenbileg, Ts. "Changing Perceptions of Genghis Khan in Mongolia." Harvard Asia Pacific Review. Winter 99-00. <http://hcs.harvard.edu/~hapr/winter00_millenium/Genghis.html> (9 November 2002)
The Mongol Messenger. 6 November 2002. <http://www.mongolnet.mn/mglmsg/> (9 November 2002)
Chinggis Khan College. <http://www.chinggiscomplex.mn/college.htm> (9 November 2002)

"All who surrender will be spared; whoever does not surrender but opposes with struggle and dissension, shall be annihilated."
-Genghis Khan

Genghis Khan is known to be one of history’s most feared rulers. He was a great leader, and his philosophies and strategies of war are still studied today. He and his raiders were from the steppe region, now know as Mongolia. One of his greatest accomplishments was to expand the legendary Mongolian Empire. Temujin was his name given to him at birth, Genghis Khan was an earned nomenclature. It is known that he was born in the 1160’s, but the exact date is unknown (approx. 1167). He was born into the Royal Borjigh clan of the Mongols and when he was nine Temujin’s father died from poison (a rival clan’s coup). The Royal Borjigh clan was then controlled by a rival family who sent Temujin’s family away from the clan. Although they were exiled and poor, Temujin was well liked and had a great personality.

After the rival clan captured his wife, Temujin asked an ally clan chief for help in the form of providing an army. Not only did the ally provide 20,000 solders, but he convinced a friend of Temujin’s to provide another army. Temujin then took those armies and succeeded in winning the battle against the clan who took his wife hostage. From there he became power hungry and began to destroy other clans. After his friends split from him, he conquered them. Most of the clans and peoples he conquered he made slaves and servants.

After conquering numerous clans, he was crowned Genghis Khan, which means “universal ruler.” Once he gained power over the the Mongols, his son eliminated their nomadic ways and started a feudal system. Genghis was now ready for world domination with the new Mongolia, for he also had such technologies as: catapults, spears, and burning oil. After conquering land near China, he turned his sights to capturing the large empire. Capturing China was no easy feat, for his army had to find a way around or over the Great Wall, which was specifically put there to stop such raids.

By the time Genghis Khan died he turned a nomadic state into a huge empire. One of Genghis's grandsons, Mongke took over as Khan (great leader) when Genghis died. Another of his grandsons Kublai Khan founded the Yuan dynasty in China. When he was done Genghis Khan’s armies had captured an empire that stretched across Asia, fromNorth Korea to Eastern Europe in the North, and from South China to Asia Minor in the South

Genghis Khan was a great leader and general. His effect on China was evident through the expansion during his reign. He truly exemplified a rags to riches story, and is still remembered as an amazing force.

Works Cited:
“Section 2: Dynastic Change.” Global Insights: People and Cultures. 1994

“Khan.” The New Encyclopedia Britannica. 1998

“Bios: Genghis Khan.” Bios: Genghis Khan. Available: http://despina.advanced.org/17120/data/bios/khan/

“Graphic maps: Asia.” World Atlas Online Available: http://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/as.htm

“Genghis @ National Geographic”, National Geographic Online Available: http://www.nationalgeographic.com/genghis/index.html

Genghis Khan was born in what is now Mongolia circa 1167 into the Bjorjin Clan of the Mongol tribe under the name Temujin. This was one of about half a dozen tribes in this area of steppe, some of the other notable ones being the Tartars, Ungirrads, Merkids, Kereyids and Naimans They were groups of nomadic horsemen, famed for their fearless and quarrelsome nature.

In previous times, hordes from this area had captured kingdoms in China and created their own dynastys. However, each of these were Chinificated, and instead of Mongol influence extending to China, the reverse occured.

Many of Genghis' ancestors had a record of being leaders of both his clan and the tribe, and his father, Yesugei Bat-atur, was the ruler of the clan. However, he became involved in the warfare between the Chinese-backed Tartars and the Mongols, and when Temujin was 9, a group of Tartars poisoned Yesugei. Left fatherless, Genghis and his family were forced to flee his Clan when the rival Tayichi'ud Clan incited them against him. He spent his formative years living rough, and was several times captured by other Mongols and held to ransom, escaping each time. Aged 16, he married an Ungirrad girl, Borte. Soon after, she was captured and raped by Merkid raiders, and found to be pregnant. It was unknown whether Genghis or an anonymous Merkid tribesman was the father of her first son, Jochi. She later bore him three other sons, Chagadai, Ogedei, and Tolui.

Genghis spent the next few years in alliance with the Christian leader of the Kereyid tribe, To'oril. Together they virtually annihilated the Tartars, and Genghis acquired a following composed of men from almost every Mongoloid tribe. However, their friendship later turned sour, and Genghis killed To'oril and sacked his camp. He had meanwhile embarked on the road to unifying the fiercely divided tribes. Unfortunately, his childhood friend, Jamukha, assembled a coalition aiming to stop him achieving this, and obtaining power over all the tribes. After around a decade, despite several reverses, he finally defeated his last opponents, and Jamukha commited suicide.

The year was 1206, and Temujin was around 40, approaching old age for a Mongol of that era. However, taking the title Genghis Khan, he lived for twenty more years, by his death ruling an empire stretching from southern Siberia in the north to modern-day Afghanistan and Iran in the west, to northern China in the south-east.

He waged war against the Chinese Chin and Hsia-Hsia empires and the Kwhazarahm Shah empire of eastern Persia, and was responsible for millions of deaths. He also completely reorganised the workings of the Mongol state, encouraging hierachy and drilling his army of horse archers until enemy forces frequently overestimated their size seven-fold.

When he died in 1227, he left the reins of the empire and Northern China to his son Ogedei, Eastern China and Persia to Chagadai, who was also the founder of the Mongol legal code, the Mongol heartland to Tolui, and to the sons of his recently deceased child Jochi he left the as yet unconquered land of Central Asia and European Russia

His empire remained nomadic, and ruled the land merely by raiding it occasionally. In this, its natural function, his army was probably the most effective ever created. His life and some of the mythology surrounding it was written in 'The Secret History of the Mongols', which he himself commisioned, and which required the creation of a Mongol alphabet

Sources used: Storm from the East by Robert Marshall (published by BBC books)

The Secret History of the Mongols

In Search of Genghis Khan by Tim Severin (Hutchinson)

Genghis Khan- King of Kings

Genghis Khan was born in 1162 to the Mongol warrior and tribe-leader Yesugei the Brave, under the name Temujin. In 1171, at the age of 10, Temujin’s father, Yesugei was poisoned to death by a rival tribe, the The Merkit Mongols. This put Temujin in control of the Yakka Mongols. When this happened, his tribesman deserted him. This left him digging roots for food and owning only seven sheep. Then a stroke of luck found him.

By some random twist of fate, Temujin found himself engaged to a young woman named Bortei, in 1175. Then in 1177 Temujin and his brother killed their half-brother for spying for the Tanguts, a neighboring tribe. The Tanguts retaliated by capturing Temujin in 1179, however Temujin escaped 2 days before his execution and returned to his tribe, where he married Bortei. The next year, however, the Merkit tribe raided his camp, and in the confusion Temujin abandoned Bortei. 2 months later, though he led an expedition to save her and was successful.

Over the years of 1181-1183 Temujin fought many victorious and glorious battles, often against near impossible odds. This earned him the name Genghis (which is pronounced Chingis) Khan. The translation is Invincible Ruler. During this same time period Genghis decided that he wished to “expand” to the west. This was to conquer the three main empires that China consisted of; The Xi Xia, The Qin, and The Na-Chung.

In 1201 Genghis defeated Jamuga’s army, which consisted of 50 men and half of the Xi Xia’s army. Then two years later he defeated Togrul’s army, which was the other half of Xi Xia’s army. Finally in 1204 Genghis Khan was moving his “conquerors eye” upon the Qin Empire.

On his conquest to the Qin, Genghis Khan was met by the Naimans. The Naimans were a small group of mercenaries, defending the Qin. They proved to be little challenge. Then in the year 1206 Genghis Khan was named Khan of Khan’s (ruler of rulers) for/in China and Mongolia. In 1209 the Empire of the Xi Xia regrouped, though it was not nearly of the same strength and as such was easy for Genghis Khan. In 1211 Genghis finally “started a war” with the Qin Empire. To do this, however he had to break through the Great Wall of China. This took him two months, but he was successful. In 1215 Genghis finally conquered the capitol of the Qin Empire, Beijing, by destroying the Capitol Building.

In 1217 Genghis beheaded the ruler of the Qin, Guchluk. By doing this Genghis Khan took control of the Qin Empire. Later that year, though, Muhammad who ruled the Khwarazmain Mongols broke a treaty by killing a Mongol Ambassador. Genghis followed in the like, by killing Muhammad two days later.

In 1218 Genghis rode to the Empire of the Na-Chung hoping to attack and conquer. After four years of fighting Genghis and his hordes did succeed. Finally he finished it in 1226 by riding to stop an attempted rebellion by the united Qin and Na-Chung. Genghis did so, but fell off of his horse on the return home, and was severely injured. On the 21st of August, 1227, Genghis Khan, Invincible Ruler, and Ruler of Rulers died.

I'm sorry about the mismatch of information between my w/u and the others in this node. My information showed what I said above, and theirs said what they showed- so both are correct as far as we can see! : >)


Sources:

  • http://www.angelfire.com/mo/Qbranch
  • http://www.bigchalk.com/cgi-bin/WebObjects/WOPortal.woa/Homework/High_School/Regional/History/Mongol_Empire/Leaders_Personalities_70070.html

  • I co-wrote this with LerrisofRecluse. Myself and others felt that this should be mentioned. : )

    Moscow ! Moscow !
    Drinking vodka all night long
    Keeps you happy, makes you strong,
    A ha ha ha ha - ha !

    Genghis Khan's Moscow Moscow track isn't as much as a one hit wonder as a one unofficial Olympic anthem wonder.

    Genghis Khan, known as Dschinghis Khan back home in Germany, was part of the 'Neue Deutsche Welle' (New German Wave) genre of popular music of the 1970s and 1980s. Inspired by how well Boney M went with its 1978 hit Rasputin, German producer Ralph Seigel decided to form a band that shared the same hallmarks - extravagent costumes, a pernacious disco beat, synthesizers, and lyrics concerned with people and events historical. The group of four men and two women that Seigel put together failed to win at a German talent show in 1979, singing about the Mongol warlord (Let's get some more vodka, ha-ha-ha, because we are Mongols, ha-ha-ha ). However their clothes stood out (see www.noaura.com/dschinghiskhan.jpg if you don't believe me) and they were able to get enough audience appeal to dare to put together an album.

    Must be historical events that moves vinal, Seigel surmised, and so the band named themselves as Genghis Khan and started to research various legends for inspiration. Like samurais, nomads in the Sahara, ancient Rome(Romulus and Remus the two brothers, raised among the wolves like no others), the Incas (Machu Picchu, Machu Picchu, where the secrets are at home), and one story where the son of Genghis Khan dreams of being the drummer of a boy band instead of leading the Golden Horde (wants to drum and sing-oh, just like his idol Ringo). In this piece 'Rocking Son of Dschinghis Khan' the Mongol leader eventually gives leave to his son, obviously impressed with his drum solo (You're a rocker, you're a roller, you're a rocking man, and you are my favourite son).

    The group disappeared around 1983 after their last album Himalaya was released. But whereas we cannot remember what was sung at Los Angeles, Seoul, Barcelona, Atlanta or Sydney, Moscow Moscow will, like some of the ancient monuments they sang about, will last the eons of time.

    http://www.menet.umn.edu/~gladkov/music/dschinghis_khan.htm#samples
    http://www.noaura.com/badmusic.html

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