Fritz Zwicky 1898-1972 was a Swiss astronomer and physicist who is most often cited for the work he did on super novae, although he also worked on solid state physics, gaseous ionisation, thermodynamics, and cosmic rays.

His work on extra-galactic supernovae also led him to work on the phenomena of gravitional lensing; he showed that some of the mass of the galaxies he looked at must be invisible, so called dark matter.

He was an eccentric character and in the 1930's and 40's some of his colleagues regarded him as an 'irritating buffoon' Zwicky himself used to call people 'spherical bastards'; they were bastards every way he looked at them.

He was also director of research at the Aerojet Engineering Corporation, Azusa, California during the later half of WWII and worked on some of the earliest jet engines and JATO engines.

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