Dynamics in music are the relative loudness or softness of the tones being played and are directly related to the amplitude of the tone's vibration.

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As is listed above, dynamics indicate the volume of the current music. However, it should be noted that, if yours is just one part of a larger ensemble, all dynamics will be relative. There is no set volume for Forte; it is just an appropriate contrast to how the piece is being played and what the instrumentation is like.

Pianissimo          Ueber-Soft
Piano               Soft
Mezzo piano         Moderately soft 
Mezzo forte         Moderately loud 
Forte               Loud 
Fortissimo          Very loud 
Changes in Dynamics:
Crescendo           Increasing in loudness  
Decrescendo         decreasing in loudness  
Diminuendo          Same as decrescendo
Sforzando           Sudden loudness

In music notation, dynamics describe the volume or loudness of the music, both fixed and changing. They are generally positioned below the staff or in the middle of a grand staff, and with a few exceptions are always marked using one to three letters in a stylized font.

When used with a staff, they look something like this (piano, crescendo and forte markings are used here):

---| /----------------------------------------------------
  /|              |         |         |         |         
|  |  |      |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |         
 \ |  |      |____|____|____|____|____|____|____|         
   |                                 __________  
  \|             __________----------
            p  < __________                     f

Common dynamics markings include:

In chemistry, dynamics is a field closely related to kinetics. Most textbooks cover both topics simultaneously, with the exception of most organic chemistry textbooks.

The difference is that while kinetics deals with the mathematics of reactions, dynamics deals with the actual mechanisms involved.

An example from organic chemistry:
Kinetics tells you an SN1 reaction occurs at a rate proportional to the concentration of one reagent, and independent of the other reagent's concentration.
Dynamics tells you that the product of the reaction will be a racemic mixture rather than one specific enantiomer since the carbocation has two sides open to nucleophilic attack.

Basically, kinetics is quantitative while dynamics is qualitative.

The study of dynamics helps chemists know which types of structures are the most or least reactive with other molecules. This helps decide what the best reagents are for producing a given product, and which reagents (and solvents) to avoid.

Dy*nam"ics (?), n.


That branch of mechanics which treats of the motion of bodies kinematics and the action of forces in producing or changing their motion kinetics. Dynamics is held by some recent writers to include statics and not kinematics.


The moving moral, as well as physical, forces of any kind, or the laws which relate to them.

3. Mus.

That department of musical science which relates to, or treats of, the power of tones.


© Webster 1913.

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