The Dragon, or Draco, is a constellation located in the northern hemisphere. It lies just east of Ursa Major and extends all the way to the east of Ursa Minor, its tail between the two. Through ancient times it has been associated with dragons or serpents. The Persians knew it as a man-eating serpent, while the Greeks saw it as a dragon which lived within the garden of the Hesperides, or Daughters of the Evening, where he guarded the stars or golden apples which hung from the Pole Tree in the Garden of Darkness.

In Egypt it was known as Typhon or Set, ruler of darkness and enemy of the Sun. Thuban, it's main star, means Serpent or Dragon in Arabic. Around 3000 B.C. Thuban was the Pole Star or North Star, caused by the fact that the celestial north pole slowly moves in a circle which passes through the body of the Dragon. Today the Pole Star is Polaris, and will become Deneb in thousands of years, then later Vega will take its place.

Draco was an Athenian legislator to whom is generally ascribed the first codification of the laws of Athens, from 624 to 621 BC. However, according to Aristotle, from 683 BC onwards the six junior archons, the thesmothetai, were charged with the task of codifying Athenian law. Perhaps they were too slow, or incompetent, or perhaps it was in response to some crisis, but a prominent nobleman known to history only as Draco was charged with the task of codifying the laws of the oppressive oligarchy.

Draco produced a comprehensive set of laws for the city-state, perhaps the first such in European history, with an overwhelming focus on crime and punishment. His laws were considered harsh from the very first - when asked about them, he explained that he felt even trivial crimes should be punishable by death, and that he'd been unable to find anything harsher for more serious crimes. Anything from stealing a head of cabbage to murder merited the death penalty under the Draconian code. If even a suspicion of manslaughter or murder followed a traveller to the gates of the city they were denied entry until the charges were cleared, regardless of whether they were Athenian citizens or foreigners.

The Draconian laws did not last long, though. Twenty-seven years later, during his reign as archon, Solon repealed the code and replaced them with his own laws, though he kept at least the penalties for murder intact. In approximately 408 BC, a decree was... erm, decried, stating that the law on murder should be publicly inscribed, so that visitors and citizens alike should be unable to plead ignorance. This is now one of the fundamental premises of most modern legal systems.

These days, Draco is identified with anything harsh, out-dated, or oppressive, yet to consign Draco entirely to a negative adjective seems somewhat unfair. After all, he was also the first in Greece to outlaw the taking of personal revenge; he created a system of objective justice, albeit a grossly penal one; and he wrote into his laws the principle that the power of the state to institute the laws came only from the people.

Later Athenian authors refer to laws of Draco, indicating that some of his statutes may have survived more than a few decades. However, Aristotle's claim in The Constitution of Athens that Draco actually produced a complete constitution is almost certainly false.

Although Draco can also be spelt and pronounced Dracon, the man's name does not in any way refer to dragons. Dragon does indeed originate in Ancient Greek, but from the word δρακων (drakon), meaning serpent, through Latin (Dracon, serpent) and Old French (Dragon).

Sources:

  • The Oxford English Dictionary
  • http://www.omhros.gr/Kat/History/Greek/Sc/Draco.htm
  • http://www.multied.com/dates/700bc.html

The DraCo was the first licensed clone of the Commodore Amiga line of computers. It ran a modified version of AmigaOS, complete with Intuition, KickStart and Workbench. It was released by MacroSystems in 1994, and cost a whopping 15000 US dollars -- needless to say, it wasn't exactly meant for the garden variety Amiga user. The target market was video editing, and it was aimed at the niche of this market where SGI systems were too expensive, but 1994-era PCs were too shoddy.

Its hardware architecture was based around two modules, named the Rastaban and the Eltanin. Rastaban was the main module, providing a versatile expansion bus containing five Zorro II slots and three of MacroSystems' proprietary Dracobus slots, as well as two slots reserved for the Eltanin module -- in fact, these two slots were one Zorro II and one Dracobus. The Eltanin module was roughly equivalent to the motherboard of an x86 PC (except that it, in fact, itself was a daughterboard on the Rastaban module), and contained the system's RAM, CPU, SCSI I/O system and the Amiga ROM. The dual-module design was meant to facilitate easy replacement and upgrade of the "motherboard", since it itself was mounted in slots on the central bus. It was powered by a 50 MHz Motorola 68060 superscalar CPU, could handle up to 128 MB RAM (in 4 72-pin SIMM slots), and came standard with a SCSI-II hard drive and CD-ROM. One extension often used with the system was the addition of a 233MHz DEC Alpha, which would function as a powerful coprocessor. I'm not sure how they managed that particular feat, since the 68060 (like all m68k processors) is a 32-bit chip, and a DEC Alpha is 64-bit.

It did not use the famous Amiga chipset with its legendary trio of custom chips Denise, Agnus/Alice and Paula. Instead, it had an Altais graphics card and used CybergraphX RTG software to control its display, and used an emulation layer for the Amiga software that depended on the old custom chips. In those days, assembly programming wasn't the black art it has become today, many programmers had a very intimate familiarity with their machines (Linux history buffs will recall that Linus Torvalds started developing Linux to get to know the x86 architecture). Amiga programmers were some of the most notorious assembler hackmeisters and would typically pound extensively on those custom chips; I wouldn't be surprised if those freaks dream in m68k assembly.

One major advantage the DraCo had over the original Amigas (discounting its vastly faster graphics hardware and the fact that a 68060 came standard) was that it used a unified memory architecture. Standard Amigas usually had 1-2 megabytes of chip RAM (which was slow, but accessible by the custom chips) and any amount of fast RAM up to the limits of what the bus could handle (which was fast, but could only be accessed by the CPU, limiting its application).

The DraCo was released in two distinct models, the original DraCo in its full tower case, and the later DraCo Vision which came in a cube server case (which looks suspiciously like the PC cube cases made by Yeong Yang if you ask me). While definitely a decent machine for its day, the DraCo never really caught on. The model was apparently discontinued in the late 90's, but every now and then, these things are still spotted in the wild, typically pulling light server or workstation duty, often running NetBSD .

References

  • http://www.amiga-hardware.com/draco.html
  • http://amiga.emugaming.com/draco.html
  • Numerous drool-stained ads and hardware analysis pages on the Amiga magazines of my wild youth

Dra"co (?), n. [L. See Dragon.]

1. Astron.

The Dragon, a northern constellation within which is the north pole of the ecliptic.

2.

A luminous exhalation from marshy grounds.

3. Zool.

A genus of lizards. See Dragon, 6.

 

© Webster 1913.

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