Regarding Film or video, a soundtrack to a movie which causes you to re-evaluate your relationship to the music and the film (usually because you dislike the soundtrack in some way.) This is to be distinguished from a purely bad soundtrack.
One of the principles of the Hollywood soundtrack is that it be invisible while enhancing the emotional value of the scene. Invisible in this case means you do not hear the music consciously, it never drowns out the film. Many films (especially independent) wish to challenge this notion, that the soundtrack has to be a backdrop to the film or work subtly.
Jim Jarmusch's Dead Man is an example of the challenging soundtrack. Neil Young's howling guitar occasionally overrides the scenes, particularly those in which William Blake experiences mental disorientation due to his bullet wound. Although the soundtrack is at times difficult or painful to hear, it creates an important thematic link between these scenes, and a palpaple feeling of the progression of this man's descent to death (and an awakened self.)
If Russian auteur Sergei Eisenstein had had his way, all films would feature soundtracks which act as a couterpoint to the images. I think this is called contrapuntal sound.