Arnold J. Toynbee (1889 - 1975) was a British historian and the author of A Study of History, a celebrated analysis of the rise and fall of civilizations.

From 1925 until his retirement in 1955 he served as Research Professor of International History at the University of London and the Director of Studies at the Royal institute of International Affairs.

In 1956, Queen Elizabeth II named him a Companion of Honour.

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