1962 - 1966 <! 1960s !> 1968 - 1972
Population 334 Million
Democratic Republic of the Congo
The Congolese independence movement fractured after its success against Belgium, as the Katanga and Kasai providences fought for secession. This five year civil war largely ended with General Mobutu's coup d'etat in 1965. Belgian mercenary Jean Schramme grew incensed against the new government over actions like the kidnapping of the former Katanga president. His unit, 10 Commando ANC (Armee Nationale Congolaise), launched a rebellion against Mobutu's regime by capturing towns within Katanga. They will hold off the Congo's army from July until early November. The government will exile Schramme next year. In two years, Moise Tshombe (the kidnapped president) will die in captivity. In that time, Mobutu's administration will largely dispense with democratic mechanisms.
http://www.ina.fr/video/CAF86014809/la-fin-des-mercenaires-video.html - (24 minute embedded documentary in french)
- Biafra, in eastern Nigeria, announces its independence but Nigeria suppresses the rebellion into next year
- Christiaan Barnard carries out the world's first heart transplant
The British Antartic Survey maps the Burgess Ice Rise via airborne radar while mapping Wilkins Sound. It won't be specifically named until 1980. An ice rise is a mons like area in a plain of ice created by a hill underneath. Wilkins Sound is on the west side of the whip shaped peninsula that points at Cape Horn (Chile).
Population 1,946 Million
Sultan Omar Saifuddin III ended his successful seventeen year reign by abdicating to make way for his eldest (21 year old) son, Hassanal Bolkiah. He had been preparing for this since the Labour Party dominated the UK Parliament in 1964, on the asssumption that it would draw down its military from Asian protectorates. The preparations took several forms, including the second general election since the adopting the 1959 constitution and Brunei's currency board introducing its own note this same year. Bolkiah's coronation will take place early next year. Saifuddin will remain in a role called Seri Begawan. In this capacity, he will act as advisor to the new Sultan and stretch negotiations for the British withdrawal / Independence until 1983.
Population 14.6 Million
Australian referendum removes discriminatory language from Australian Constitution about Indigenous Australians.
Population 345 Million (West) & 105 Million (East)
Greece had a tough time after world war two, like russia post world war one. It didn't end but endured civil war against a communist split of its army. So, it was seen as a focal point by anticommunist forces, particularly US diplomats. Greek jucidial response was also unfortunate, but not uncharacteristic of the time: imprisoning people on accusation of communist leanings. Further, there are some complications with Cyprus, like Kashmir, has peoples of different ethnicities and their patrons wanting more influence for their proxies. Then prime minister George Papandreou rejects the plan to assert greek control of the island. Anti communist factions further distrusted his son as economic minister. So, when Papandreou tenders a resignation to King Constantine II to protest not being able to reorganize his cabinet - the youthful king is formally in control over the military - the king readily accepted it and arranged a series of interrim administrations right of center, in the two years prior to permitting a new election. The king and anticommunist forces grew concerned that the polls indicated Papandreau's centrist faction would again gain the majority. There are people who claim the king and anticommunists planned to depose such a parliament in may after the election. In the end, neither faction had a chance to contest the election, as army officers led by Colonel George Papadopoulos enacted a coup d'etat in April.
A group of rightwing army officers coordinated a tank blockade of the city and simultaneous arrests of many politicians and potential sympathizers. After convincing Greece's Commander-in-Chief, Grigorios Spandidakis, the faction secured control of the rest of the government institutions. The surrounded king begrudgingly acknowledged the new government, which the junta took full moral advantage of. Though he and senior-officer sympathizers attempted a military counter-coup in December, the rest of the army easily blocked that attempt. The Junta declared complete martial law and supplanted the constitution with a number of decrees intended to ferret out communist members. The number of censored/forbidden items grew to include ridiculous things, but actually represents the totally arbitrary justifications that junta leaders could employ, followed by torture to get still more targets. The military government will last seven years.
Cyprus' Turkish inhabitants had been sequestered in enclaves following the 1963 crisis. Some months after the coup, the Junta withdrew soldiers from Cyprus bases, then returned in force and promised to accompany police through Turkish areas. Turkey responded by bringing their military to the Mediterranean coast and flying sorties over Cyprus. UN intervention brought Greek and Turkish authorities to agree to withdraw non-police forces from the island. This compromise will fray within a couple years, though.
Population 177 Million
Since 1952, Uruguay had an exceedingly power-shared Executive: a nine member committee head of state (the Colegiao), six of the majority, and three of the minority party. Citizens and politicians alike disdained its impotence, given the difficulty of consensus. So, '66 saw four constitutional proposals on the ballot, alongside a party election. The Colorado party and the 'orange' changes won. Now, Colorado could promote Oscar Gestido as President. Gestido was a general and then chairman of their equivalent to FEMA. Unfortunately, he died of a heart attack in the first week of December, and Uruguayans entered the dictatorial period that the Colegiado was designed to avoid. Vice President Jorge Areco assumed leadership and incarcerated dissidents within the year's end. His administration found itself opposed in equal violence by the Tupamaros terrorist group. The country will suffer both until the 1971 coup d'etat.
NASA launched both Lunar Orbiter 3 and 4 and watched Surveyor 3 land on the Moon. Both the USA and USSR launched probes at Venus mid-June and saw them arrive mid-October. NASA's mariner flied by, but the Soviet Venera 4 entered the atmosphere. Both had deaths as well: Apollo 1 burned on the launch pad and Vladimir Komarov's Soyuz 1 parachute failed to deploy.
Population 357 Million
The treatment of Parkinson's Disease grew enormously more effective when George Cotzias, of Brookhaven National Laboratories in NY, began using megadoses - 16g - of levodopa (d,i,dihydroxyphenylalanine). It had been isolated in the early 1910s from plants and in a sensational recovery of twenty patients by Viennese biochemist Oleh Hornykiewicz. Unfortunately, some false negatives muddied the water for levodopa until Cotzias' trials. Within five years, levodopa manufacturers, including Merck, pair this with enzyme inhibitors that permit doses of just 1-2g daily. Levodopa will be the core medicine for treating Parkinsons' until the 1980s experiments with deep brain stimulation.
TV show Gilligan's Island was surrepticiously cancelled following its third season. It had been doing alright as the lead-in to the Monday night lineup on CBS (against NBC's The Monkees). However, vociferous support mounted for the endangered show Gunsmoke, lead by CBS' president William Paley. Gunsmoke was given the Monday spot for four years. Without warning, Gilligan's Island was gone. The seventies will see the cast reunite for an animated spin-off and two movies.
- The Kerner Commission reports about the race riots in most major cities this year.
- Canada hosts the World's Fair, Expo 67, celebrating the centennial of the British North America Act.
- After state police shot striking schoolteachers, Lucio Cabañas Barrientos organized a guerrilla group that harrassed the state of Guerrero until a botched kidnapping in 1974.
People and Companies of various ages
- Just born
Ramzi Yousef (Kuwait) and Anna Nicole Smith (Houston, TX). Quest Diagnostics, MapQuest, and McDonnell Douglas.
- Born 1962
Princess Lalla Meryem (Morocco) and Stefano Gabbana (Milan, Italy). Pier 1 Imports, Walmart, Stena Line, and Fuji Xerox.
- 10 years old
Elaine Carbines (Manchester, England) and Goodluck Jonathan (Ogbia, Nigeria). Digital Equipment Corporation, Japan Atomic Power Company, and Dick Clark Productions.
- Born 1952
Vladimir Putin (Leningrad, Russian SFSR) and Shigeru Miyamoto (Kyoto, Japan). Givenchy, CBS Productions, and Holiday Inn.
- 20 years old
Salman Rushdie (Karachi, Pakistan) and Temple Grandin (Rindge, NH). Color Television Inc, H&M, and Pulitzer Inc.
- Born 1942
Ehud Barak (Jerusalem, Israel) and Isabel Allende (Santiago, Chile). Archie Comics and Kellex Corporation.
- 30 years old
Jane Fonda (New York City, NY) and Ratan Tata (Mumbai, India). Krispy Kreme, Ray-Ban, Polaroid Corporation, and T Rowe Price.
- Born 1932
Umberto Eco (Milan, Italy) and Victor Jara (Santiago, Chile). Playtex, Zippo, and Fritos
- 40 years old
Genevieve Audrey Wagner (Crescent City, CA) and Neil Simon (New York City, NY). Gerber Products Company, Browning Arms Company, and Volvo Cars.
- Born 1922
Betty White (Los Angeles, CA) and Ralph H Baer (Nashua, NH). Raytheon, British Broadcasting Company, and State Farm Insurance.
- 50 years old
Sameera Moussa (Brussels, Belgium) and Jack Kirby (New York City, NY). Nikon, Barnes & Noble, BMW, and Mikasa Sports.
1962 - 1966 <! 1960s !> 1968 - 1972
1950s @ 20th Century @ 1970s