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from - I have been authorised to reproduce this article.

Everything is evaluated not by its appearance at a given moment, but according to its measure of development.

Everything in reality, good and bad, and even the most harmful in the world has a right to exist and should not be eradicated from the world and destroyed. We must only mend and reform it, because any observation on the work of creation is enough to teach us about the greatness and perfection of its operator and creator. Therefore, we must understand and be very careful when casting a flaw in any detail of reality, any item of creation, and say that it’s redundant and superfluous, as that would be slander about its operator.

It is common knowledge that the Creator did not complete creation when He created it. And we can see in every corner of reality, in the general and in the particular, that it abides by laws of gradual development - from absence through the completion of its growth. For that reason, when the fruit tastes bitter in the beginning of its growth, it is not considered to be a flaw in the fruit, because we all know that the fruit has not yet finished its development.

And so it is in every aspect of reality, when some item appears bad and harmful to us, it is but a self-testimony of that item; that it is still in that transition phase - in the process of its development. Therefore, we cannot decide that it is bad and it is not wise for us to cast a flaw in it.

The weakness of “world-reformers”

This is the key to understand the weakness of world-reformers throughout the generations. They regarded man as a machine that is not operating properly and needs mending, meaning to remove the corrupted parts and replace them with good ones.

And that is the tendency of all world-reformers, to eradicate any harmful and bad in the human species ----- and it is true, that if the Creator had not stood against them, they would certainly have by now cleaned man entirely, living only good and useful.

But because the Creator watches over His entire creation most meticulously, not letting anyone destroy a single thing in His domain, only reform it and make it useful and good, therefore all the reformers will vanish from the face of the earth, and evil inclinations – will not. They live on and count the degrees that they must still evolve through until they come to the end of their ripening.

At that time, the bad attributes themselves will turn to good and useful ones, as the Creator had initially perceived them to be, like the fruit on the tree that sits and waits and counts the days and months it must still wait before the completion of its ripeness, at which time its taste and sweetness will become evident to any person.

If they are worthy – I will hasten it, if they are not worthy – in its time

But we must know that the above law of development, which is spread across the whole reality, guaranteed to return all evil to good and useful acts through the power of the government of heaven above, meaning without asking permission from the people who inhabit the land below. However, the Lord placed knowledge and authority in the hands of man, and permitted man to accept the above law of development under his own authority and government, and handed him the ability to hasten the process of development as he wishes, freely and completely independent of the boundaries of time.

It turns out that there are two authorities, acting in the above law: the one is the authority of Heaven, which is sure to turn any harmful and evil to good and useful, but that will be in due time, in its own way, flounderingly and after a long time. And then there is the authority of the earth: And when the ‘evolving object’ is a living being, it suffers horrendous torments while under the ‘press’ of development, a press that carves its way ruthlessly.

The ‘authority of the earth’, however, is comprised of people who have taken this law of development under their own government, and can entirely free themselves from the chains of time, and greatly accelerate time, meaning the completion of the ripeness of the object, which is the end of the object’s development.

Such are the words that our sages said about the redemption and the end of the correction of Israel. And so they clarified the verse "I the LORD will hasten it in its time” (Isaiah 60, 22). If they are worthy, I will hasten it, if they are not worthy, in its time. Meaning, if Israel is worthy and take the law of development that their bad attributes must go through in order to invert them into good ones, they will bring them under their own government. Meaning that they set their minds and hearts to correct all the bad attributes in them and turn them into good ones by themselves, then – “I will hasten time”, meaning they will be completely freed from the chains of time and that end depends from now on, on their own will. Meaning only by the greatness of the deed and the mindfulness. And thus they hasten the end.

But if they are not worthy of developing their bad attributes under their own authority, but leave it under the authority of Heaven, they too are certain to attain the end of redemption and the end of correction, because there is complete certainty in the government of Heaven, which acts by the law of gradual development, degree by degree, until it turns any evil and harmful to good and useful, as the fruit on a tree, but in its time. Meaning now it is completely connected and dependent on time.

For according to that law of gradual development, one must go through many degrees, which tend to come heavily and very slowly and lengthily, and stretch over a very long time before one reaches the end. And because the objects we are discussing are evolving, sensing, living beings, therefore they too must suffer great agony and pains in those developmental situations because the force that pushes us from a lower to a higher degree is a force of pain and torment that has accumulated in the lower degree and can no longer be tolerated. Because of that we must leave that degree and rise to a higher one. It is as our sages said: "The Creator places over them a king whose sentences are as harsh as Haman's, and Israel repent and reform."

Therefore the end is certain to come to Israel by the law of gradual development, and it is called "in its time," meaning tied to the chains of time. And Israel’s guaranteed goal, by taking the development of their attributes under their own authority is called, “I will hasten it”, meaning completely freed from the chains of time.

Good and bad are evaluated by the actions of the individual toward society

Before we examine the correction of evil in the human species, we must first determine the value of those abstract terms, “good” and “bad”. Meaning when we define an act or an attribute as good or bad, we should clarify whom that attribute or act benefits.

To understand that, we must thoroughly know the proportional value between the individual and the collective - Meaning between the individual and the collective within which this individual lives and by which he is provided for, both in matter and in spirit.

Reality shows us that there is no right to exist for an isolated individual without a sufficient number of people around him to serve him and help him provide for his needs. Hence, a person is initially born to live a social life. And each and every individual in society is like a wheel that is linked to several other wheels on the same machine. And this single wheel has no freedom of movement in and of itself, but it continues with the motion of all the other wheels in a certain direction for the machine to perform its general purpose.

And if there is some breakdown in the wheel, it is not evaluated relating to the wheel itself but according to the service and role it performs in the machine in general.

And also in our subject matter, the benefit of each and every individual within his collective is evaluated, not according to his own benefit, but according to his service to the public. And vise versa, we appreciate the attribute of evil of each and every individual only according to the harm one inflicts upon the public in general and not by one’s own individual value.

The truth, and by the benefit in these things are crystal clear because the collective has only what the individual has. And the benefit of the collective is the benefit of each and every individual: he who harms the collective takes his part in the harm and he who benefits the collective takes his part in the benefit, because individuals are part of the whole and the whole is not worth more than the sum of its individuals.

It thus turns out that the collective and individual are one and the same thing. And the individual is not harmed because of his enslavement to the collective because the freedom of the collective and the freedom of the individual are one and the same thing. And just as they share the good, they also share the freedom.

Thus good attributes and bad attributes, good deeds and bad deeds are evaluated only according to the benefit of the public.

Of course the above words apply if all the individuals perform their role toward the public to the fullest, and receive no more than they deserve and take no more than their friends’ share. But if a part of the collective does not behave accordingly, it turns out that not only do they harm the collective but they are also harmed.

We should not discuss further something that is known to all and the aforesaid is only to show the drawback, meaning the place that needs correction, and that is that each and every individual will understand that his own benefit and the benefit of the collective are one and same. In that the world will attain its full correction.

The Four Attributes, Mercy, Truth, Justice, and Peace, In the Individual and the Collective

Once we know fully well the desired attribute of goodness, we should examine the things and the means that are at our disposal in order to hasten that delight and happiness.

There are four properties for that purpose: mercy, truth, justice and peace. Those attributes, where used by all the world reformers thus far. It is more correct to say that it is with those four attributes, that human development has advanced thus far through the government of Heaven, in a gradual path until it brought mankind to its current situation. It has already been written that it would be better for us to take the law of development under our own hands and government, because then we will rid ourselves of any torment that the developmental history has in store for us from this day forth.

Thus we should scrutinize and examine those four attributes in order to thoroughly understand what we’ve been given thus far and by them we will know what aid we should hope to get from them in the future.

Practical Difficulties in Determining the Truth

When we discuss good attributes, in theory, there is certainly no better attribute than the attribute of truth, because all the goodness that we have defined above, in the relationship between the individual and the collective, is when the individual gives and plays his part toward the collective and also takes his share from the collective justly and honestly. All that is but truth, but the drawback is that in fact, the collective not at all accepts this attribute. Thus, the practical difficulty in the above truth is proven from itself, that there is some drawback and a cause that makes it unacceptable to the collective. And we have to examine what is that drawback.

When you closely examine the above truth from the perspective of its practical feasibility, you’ll find it necessarily vague and complicated, and it is impossible for the human eye to scrutinize it. For truth necessitates us to equalize all individuals in the collective to receive their share according to their labor, no more and no less. And this is the one true basis, which cannot be doubted, for it is certain that anyone who wants to enjoy the labor of his friend, his acts are against the above reason and clear truth.

But how do we think that we can examine, clarify, or scrutinize that truth in a way that it is acceptable to the collective? For example, if we evaluate something according to the apparent labor, meaning according to the number of hours, and we compel each and everyone to work an equal amount of hours, still, we will not discover the attribute of truth at all.

Moreover, there is an evident lie here for two reasons. The first is the physical side and the second is the mental side of the worker.

That is because by nature, the power to work is not equal with each and every person. One person from society labors in one hour of work, because of his weakness, a lot more than his friend who works two hours or more.

And there is also a psychological matter here, because he who is very lazy by nature, exhausts himself in one hour more than his friend in two hours or more, and from the perspective of the obvious truth, we should not compel one part of society to labor more than the other part for the fulfillment of the needs of their lives. In fact, the naturally strong and nimble in society benefit from the labor of others and exploit them maliciously against the attribute of truth, because they labor very little compared to the weak and the lazy in society. And if we also consider the natural law of “going with the majority,” then such a truth, that takes into account the number of hours of apparent work, is completely unfeasible, because the weak and the lazy are always the vast majority in society and they will not allow the nimble and strong minority exploit their strength and labor. Thus you see that the above basis, which is the labor of the individual on the condition of the obvious truth, and with it the most part of society, is completely unfeasible because it cannot be examined and evaluated in any way. Thus you find that the attribute of truth hasn’t the practical ability to organize the path of the individual and the path of the collective in an absolute and satisfactory manner, and it cannot completely and satisfactorily organize life at the end of the correction of the world.

Furthermore there are great difficulties here because there is no clearer truth than nature itself. And it is natural, that each and every individual feels himself in the world of the Creator, as a sole ruler, that everyone that is created besides him was not created but only to ease and improve his life to such an extent that he feels no obligation whatsoever to give anything in return.

And in simple words we shall say, that the nature of each and every individual is to exploit the lives of all other people in the world for his own benefit, and all that he gives to another, is only out of necessity. Even in that there is exploitation, but it is done cunningly, so that his friend will not feel it.

And the reason for this is that the nature of every branch is close to its root. And because the soul of man extends from the Creator, who is one and unique, and everything is his, therefore, so is man, who extends from him, feels that all the people in the world should be under his own government and for his own private use. And this is a law that cannot be breached. And the only difference is in the choices of people. One chooses to exploit people by attaining the lower desires, and one by attaining government, while the third by attaining respect. Furthermore, if one could do it without much effort, he would agree to exploit the whole world with all three together: wealth, government and respect. However, he is forced to choose according to his ability and capability.

And this law can be called the law of singularity in the heart of man. And there is not a person who escapes it, but each and every one takes his share in that law: the great according to his size, and the small according to his smaller size.

Thus the above law of singularity in the nature of every person cannot be condemned nor praised, because it is a natural reality, and has a right to exist like all other details of reality. And there is no hope to eradicate it from the world or even to blur its form a little bit, just as there is no hope to eradicate the entire human species from the face of the earth. Therefore, we will not be lying at all if we would say about this law that it is the absolute truth.

And since it is undoubtedly so, how can we even try to ease one’s mind by promising him equality with all the people in the collective? For nothing is further from human nature than that, while one’s sole inclination is to soar higher, above the collective.

Thus we have clarified that there is no real possibility to bring good and joyful conducts to the life of the individual and the lives of the collective by following the attribute of truth in a way that it will ease the mind of each and every individual, so that he may completely agree with it, as should be at the end of correction.

In the absence of the ability to establish the attribute of truth they tried to establish the noble attributes

Now let us turn to the remaining three attributes: mercy, justice, and peace. It seems that to begin with, they were not created except to use them as support for the weak attribute of truth in our world. And thus begins developmental histories climb through its slow and straggler degrees in its progress toward organizing the lives of the collective.

In theory, everyone willingly agreed and took it upon themselves to not deviate in any way from the truth. But in fact they conducted themselves completely opposite from the truth. And since then, it has been the fate of truth to always be in the hands of the most deceitful, and never in the hands of the weak and the righteous - to be even slightly assisted by the attribute of truth.

When they could not establish the attribute of truth in the life of the collective, the exploited and the weak increased within society. Hence emerged the attributes of mercy and justice and enacted their actions in the conduct of society, because society as a whole necessitated the successful among them to support the weak, in order to not harm the society in general. Therefore, they behaved with the weak indulgently, meaning mercifully and righteously and with charity.

But it is only natural that under those conditions the weak and the exploited grow many until there are enough of them to protest against the successful and start quarrels and fights. And hence emerged the attribute of “peace.” Thus all those attributes - mercy, charity and peace, came about as a result of the weakness of truth.

That situation caused society to divide into many particles. Some of them adopted the attribute of mercy and charity, meaning a giving of their own possessions to others, and some of them adopted the attribute of truth, meaning, "what’s mine is mine and what’s yours is yours." In simple words we shall say that you can divide those parts into constructors and destructors. The constructors are those who want construction, who want the benefit of the entire collective, for which they are often willing to give up of their own possessions to others. But those who are prone by nature to destruction and profligacy, felt more comfortable holding on to the attribute of truth, meaning, "what's mine is mine and what's your is yours," for their own gain, and would never want to give up anything of their own to others, without taking into consideration endangering the existence of the collective, for as by nature they are destructors.

Hopes for peace

When those conditions brought society a great deal of strife and endangered the well-being of society, there came about the “peace-makers”. They have assumed control and power in society and renewed the social life on a new basis, which they thought was true, but provide for the peaceful existence of society.

But most of those peace-makers, which spring up after every dispute, naturally come from among the destructors, meaning from those who seek the truth and support the principle, “What’s mine is mine and what’s yours is yours.” This is because they are the courageous ones in society, called heroes, who are willing to throw their own lives before them, and the lives of the entire collective if they do not agree with their opinion. Whereas the constructors in society, who are the men of mercy and charity, who care for their own lives and for the well-being of the collective, refuse to risk them in order to impose their opinion on the collective. Because of that, they are always on the weak side, called the faint-hearted and the coward.

It is hence obvious that the hand of the brave profligates will always be on top, and it is natural that the peace-makers will come from among the destructors and not from the constructors.

Thus we see how the peace our generation so yearns for is worthless both from the perspective of the subject and the perspective of the predicate.

For the subjects, who are the peace-makers of our time, and indeed at any time, meaning those who have the power to make peace in the world, are forever made of the human substance we call “destructors,” for they are seekers of the truth, meaning to establish the world on the attribute of “What’s mine is mine and what’s yours is yours.”

It is natural that those people defend their opinion firmly, to the point of risking their own lives and the life of the entire collective. And that is what gives them the power to always have the upper hand over the human substance called constructors, the seekers of mercy and charity, who are willing to give up of their own for the good of others, in order to save the world, because they are the faint-hearted and the coward.

It turns out that seeking truth and the destruction of the world are one and the same, and the desire for mercy and the construction of the world are one and the same too. Therefore, we should not hope from the destructors to establish the peace in the world.

And it is hopeless to hope for peace from the predicate, meaning by the conditions of peace itself. That is because the right conditions for the well-being of the individual and the collective, according to the criterion of truth that the peace-makers so desire, have not yet been established. And it is a must that there will always be a large unsatisfied minority in society, as we have shown the weakness of the truth above. This minority will therefore always remain a ready and willing fuel for the new quarrelsome people, and the new peace-makers that will always follow.

The well-being of a certain collective and the well-being of the whole world

Do not be surprised if I mix together the well-being of a particular collective with the well-being of the whole world, because indeed we have already come to such a degree that the whole world is considered one collective and one society. Meaning, because each person in the world sucks his life’s marrow and his livelihood from all the people in the world, he is coerced to serve and care for the well-being of the whole world.

We have proven above that the total subordination of the individual to the collective is like a small wheel in a machine. He draws his life and his happiness from that collective and therefore the well-being of the collective and his own well-being are one and the same, and vice versa. Therefore, to the extent that a person is enslaved to himself, he necessarily becomes enslaved to the collective as we have spoken in length above.

And what is the extent of the above collective? That is determined by the perimeter of the drawing of the individual from them. For example, in the earlier historic eras, that perimeter was only the perimeter of one family, meaning that the individual did not need any aid but only from his own family members, at which time he certainly didn’t have to be subordinated to anyone but his own family.

In later times the families gathered in towns and states, and the individual became enslaved to his town. Later on when the towns and states became counties, the individual was supported by all his countrymen for the happiness of his life. Therefore he became enslaved by it through all the people in the country. Therefore, in our generation, when each person is aided for his happiness by all the countries in the world, it is necessary that the individual become to that extent, enslaved to the whole world as a wheel in a machine.

Therefore, the possibility of making good, happy, and peaceful conducts in one state, is inconceivable when it is not so in all the countries in the world and vice versa. Because in our time, the countries are all linked in the satisfaction of their needs of life, as individuals were in their families in earlier times. Therefore we can no longer speak or deal with just conducts that promise the well-being of one country or one nation, but only the well-being of the whole world, because the benefit or harm of each and every person in the world depends and is measured by the benefit of all the people in the whole world.

And although this is in fact known and felt, still the people in the world have not yet grasped it properly. And why? Because so is the conduct of the development in nature, that the act comes before the understanding. And only actions will prove and push humanity forward.

In Practical Life the Four Attributes Contradict one another

If the above practical difficulties, which disturb us helpless people on our way, are not enough, we have in addition, a further mix-up and great battle of the psychological predispositions, meaning the attributes themselves within each and everyone of us individually, and in contradiction from one person to another. For the above four attributes, mercy, truth, justice, and peace, which were divided in the nature of people, whether by development or by upbringing, they in and of themselves stand in contradiction to one another. And if we take for example the attribute of mercy in an abstract form, we find its government to contradict all other attributes, meaning that by the laws of the rule of mercy there is no place for the appearance of the other attributes in our world.

What is the attribute of mercy? Our sages defined it as: “what’s mine is yours and what’s your is yours”. And if all the people in the world were to behave that way, it would cancel all the glory of the attribute of truth and judgment, because if each and everyone would be naturally willing to give everything he has to his fellow man and take nothing of another for himself, then the whole interest in lying to one another would disappear, and there would be no room to speak of the attribute of truth whatsoever, because true and false are relative - and if there were no falsehood in the world, there would be no concept of truth. Needless to say that the other attributes that are there only to strengthen the attribute of truth because of its weakness, would also be cancelled.

Truth is defined in the words: “what’s mine is mine, and what’s yours is yours." That contradicts the attribute of mercy and cannot altogether tolerate it because in truth, it is unjust to labor and strain for another, because besides causing his friend to fail, he accustoms him to exploit his fellow man. Thus, truth dictates that every person treasure his own assets for a time of need so he will not have to be a burden on his fellow man.

Moreover, there is not a person without relatives and heirs that in fact, should come before others, because so nature dictates that he who gives his property to others lies to his relatives and natural heirs by not leaving them anything.

And peace also contradicts justice, because in order to make peace in society there has to be the conditions that by content, promise the nimble and the smart, which invest their energy and wisdom, to become rich, and those who are negligent and naïve, to be poor. Hence, he who is more energetic takes his own part and the part of his negligent friend and enjoys a better life, until there is not enough left for the negligent and naive to merely supply for their necessary livelihood, and therefore they remain completely bare in many ways.

It is certainly unjust to punish the negligent and the naive so harshly for no evil, for what is their sin and what is the crime of those wretched people, if providence did not give them quickness and brains that they should be punished with such harsh torments that are indeed harsher than death?

Therefore there is no justice in the conditions of peace. Peace contradicts justice and justice contradicts peace, because if we order the division of property justly, meaning give to the negligent and naive a substantial of the part that the nimble and the energetic have, then the powerful and initiative people will certainly not rest until they overthrow the government that enslaves the great ones, the energetic ones and exploits them in favour of the weak. Therefore there is no hope for the peace of the collective, for justice contradicts peace.

The Attribute of Singularity Within the Egoism Acts For Ruin and Destruction

Thus you see how our attributes collide and fight one another - not only between people, but within each and every individual there are the four attributes which dominate him all at once or one at a time, and they fight within him until there is no room for the right mind to organize them and bring them to one complete consent.

And the truth is that the root of this whole disorder within us is no more than the attribute of singularity that is within each and every one of us whether it is more or less.

And although we have clarified that it comes from a sublime reason that that attribute extends to us directly from the Creator, who is single in the world, and the root of all creations, still out of the sensation of singularity, when it sits within our narrow egoism, its action becomes ruin and destruction and the source of all the ruins that were and will be in the world. And indeed there is not a single person in the world who is free from it, and all the divisions are only in the way it is used, whether for the desires of the heart, or for rule, or for honor - that by that, people are different to one another. But the equal side in all the people of the world is that each and every one of us stands ready to abuse and exploit all the people for his own private benefit with every means possible, without taking into consideration that he is going to build himself through the ruin of his friend. And the allowance that each of us gives himself according to his chosen direction - that the desire is the root of the mind, and not the mind the root of desire, does not matter here. And the truth is that the greater and more outstanding the person, so is his attribute of singularity greater and finer.

Using the Nature of Singularity as a Subject of Evolution in the Collective and in the Individual

Now we shall penetrate into the understanding of the direct conditions that will finally be accepted by mankind at the time of the appearance of world peace, and learn how its conditions are good to bring a life of happiness to the individual and to the collective and also the readiness that exists in mankind to want to finally burden themselves with those special conditions.

Let us return to the matter of singularity in the heart of every person, which stands to swallow the whole wide world for his own pleasure. Its root extends directly from the Unique One, to the people, which are His branches. There is a question that demands an answer - how can it be that such a corrupted form will reveal in us so as to become the father of all harm and ruin in the world? And how from the source of every construction extends the source of every destruction? We cannot leave that question unanswered.

Indeed there are two sides to the coin of the above singularity. If we look at it from its upper side, meaning from the side of its equivalence with the Unique One, it works only in the form of bestowal to his fellowman, for the Creator is all bestowal, and has nothing of the form of reception, because he lacks nothing and needs to receive nothing from the creatures He has created. Therefore, the singularity that extends in us from Him must also act only in forms of bestowal to another and nothing in a form of reception for ourselves.

The other side of that coin, meaning how it actually works in us, we find that it works in the complete opposite direction, because it works only in forms of receptions for oneself, such as the desire to be the only great and rich man in the whole world. Thus, the above two sides are as far apart from one another as the East from the West.

That gives us the solution to our question - how is it possible that within the same singularity, which stems and comes to us from He who is unique in the world, who is the source of every construction, serves in us as the source of every destruction? It is because it comes to us and we use that precious tool in the opposite direction, which is self-reception. And I am not saying that the singularity in us will never act in us in a form of bestowal, because you cannot deny that amongst us there are people whose singularity works in them also in the form of bestowal, such as those who spend all their money for the common good and those who spend all their energy on the common good, etc.

But those two sides of the coin that I have described speak only of the two points of the development of creation, which brings everything to completion, beginning with absence, and climbing the degrees by a slow and gradual development, from one degree to the next, and higher on, until it comes to the summit, which is the measurement of perfection set for it in advance. And there it remains forever.

The order of development of those two points is: A) the beginning point, the lowest degree, which is close to complete absence. It is described as the second side of the coin. B) The summit, where it rests and exists forever. And that is described in the first side of the corner.

But this era that we are in has already developed to a great extent and has already risen many degrees. It has already risen above its lowest phase, which is the above second side, and has come significantly close to the first side. Therefore, there are already people among us who use their singularity in forms of bestowal. But they are still few as we are still in the midst of the path of development. When we come to the highest point of the degrees we shall all be using our singularity only in a form of bestowal, and there will never be any case of any person using it in a form of self-reception.

By those words we find the opportunity to look at the conditions of life in the last generation - the time of world peace, when the whole of mankind reaches the first side. They will use their singularity only in the form of bestowal and not at all in the form of reception. And it is good to copy here the above form of life in a way that it will serve to us as a lesson and as a role model to settle our minds under the flood of the waves of our lives. Perhaps it is worthwhile and possible in our generation to experiment in resembling this above form of life.

The Condition of Life in the Last Generation…First, everyone must thoroughly understand and explain to his surroundings that the well being of society, which is the well being of the state and the well being of the world, are completely interdependent. As long as the laws of society are not satisfactory to each and every individual in the state, and leave an unsatisfied minority from the government of the state, this minority conspires under the government of the state and seeks to overthrow it. And if its power is not sufficient to fight the government of the state face to face, it will want to overthrow it indirectly, such as to incite countries against each other, and bring them to war, because it is natural that at war time there will be a lot more unsatisfied people with which there is hope to attain the critical mass to overthrow the government of the state and establish a new leadership that is convenient for them. Thus, the peace of the individual is a direct cause for the peace of the state.

Furthermore, if we take into consideration that that part in the state whose craftsmanship is war, which the state always has, and their every hope of success, such as the scholars of war and those who live by supplying the ammunition, that as far as the social quality is concerned, they are always a very significant minority, and if we add them to the unsatisfied minority from the current rules, at every given moment you have a vast amount of people who crave war and bloodshed.

Thus, the peace of the world and the peace of the state are interdependent. Hence, we necessarily find that even that part of the state which is currently satisfied with its life, which are the nimble and the smart, still have a lot to be concerned about for the well being of their lives, due to the uneasiness of those who strive to overthrow them, and if they understand the value of peace they would be happy to adopt the conduct of living of the last generation. Because “all that a man has will he give for his life.”

Pain Vs. Pleasure in Self-Reception

Thus, when we examine and thoroughly grasp the above plan, we see that the entire difficulty lies in changing our nature - from a desire to receive for ourselves, to a desire to bestow upon others, because those two things deny one another. At first glance, the plan seems imaginary, as something that is above human nature. But when we delve deeply into it we will find that the contradiction from reception for oneself to bestowal upon others, is nothing but a psychological matter, because in fact we do bestow upon others without benefiting ourselves. Because self-reception, though it manifests itself in us in various ways, such as property, and possessions for pleasure of the heart, the eye, the pallet, etc., all those are defined by one name - pleasure. Thus, the very essence of reception for oneself that a person desires for is nothing but the desire for pleasure.

And now, imagine that if we were to collect the entire pleasure one feels during his seventy years of life, and put it on one side, and collect all the pain and sorrow one feels on the other, the result would be that one would prefer not to have been born at all. And if it is so, then what does one receive during one’s life? If we assume that one obtains twenty percent of pleasure during his lifetime, and eighty percent of pain, then if we put them one against the other, there would still remain sixty percent unrewarded.

But this is all a private calculation, as when one works for oneself. In a global calculation, however, the individual produces more than he takes for his own pleasure and existence. Thus, if the direction would change from self-reception to bestowal, the individual will enjoy the entire produce that he produces without much pain.