The philosophy conceived by Immanuel Kant and for whom it was thusly named.

Kantians state as their moral base the Categorical Imperative which is composed of two fundamental formulas:
Formula of Universal Law: I am never to act otherwise than so that I could also <rationally> will that my maxim should become a universal law.
Formula of End in Itself: Act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as a means but always at the same time as an end.