The Higher Defense Intelligence Center (Centro Superior de Informacion de la Defensa--CESID) was created in 1977 in Spain to replace the intelligence organizations created during the dictatorship of General Franco. These included the Political-Social Brigade--a special branch of the plainclothes corps--and the Intelligence Service of the Civil Guard. With their files on every part of the rural and urban population, these bodies carried on close surveillance and political intimidation on behalf of the Franco regime. By a royal decree of January 1984, CESID was defined legally as the intelligence agency of the prime minister. Nevertheless, it was fundamentally military in nature, and its head in 1988 was an army lieutenant general.

The name of CESID has been involved in scandals concerning undercover war against terrorism.

more information at (Federation of American Scientist, suggested searchs: CESID, GAL, ETA)