1) Krates of Thebes

Greek Cynic philosopher, a student and successor of Diogenes of Sinope. Born c. 365 BCE, died 285 BCE.

Krates, who lived in self-chosen poverty as a wandering philosopher, used the technique of paraphrasing older poets to make his points. As the teacher of Zeno, the founder of Stoicism, Krates of Thebes provides a link between the Cynics and the Stoics.

2) Krates of Mallos

Greek philologist from Cilicia, attached to the new Library at Pergamon in the 2nd century BCE.

Krates' work is mostly known in quote form from commentary written in late antiquity. He advocated a model of allegorical interpretation. An example is his belief that the description of Achilles' shield (in the Iliad of Homer, 18:483ff) was a coded message about the true nature of the cosmos, ordered in 10 celestial spheres. In classical philology, Krates of Mallos is thus in stark contrast to Aristarchus.