Word made famous for the study by Rosenham. He instructed several sane people into feigning simple auditory hallucinations in to see if they could get admitted to mental hospitals. They complained of having heard the words 'thud', 'empty', or 'hollow' in the past, but they were OK now. They were all admitted into the mental hospital, diagnosed with schizophrenia, except for one who was labelled as manic-depressive.

The staff treated them like they were diagnosed, giving them medication and interpreting their behavior (they were taking notes) as suspicious activity, even though they acted like normal human beings. They had a helluva time getting themselves released.

This study resulted in two things: