The King of Lydia (around 550 BC)who was fabled for his great wealth. The tale of Croesus, told by Herodotus, goes like this: on being sentenced to death by the Persian king Cyrus, Croesus called out the name of Solon, who had prophesied his fall: and on learning this ironic tale, Cyrus made Croesus his adviser.
The story is historically impossible, and was intended as an illustration of the Greek proverb 'Count no man happy until he is dead'. The phrase 'rich as Croesus' is still in use.