Novgorod is a city in northwestern Russia, northwest of Moscow and south-southeast of St. Petersburg. (Don't confuse it with Nizhni Novgorod, which is east of Moscow.) It is one of the great historical locations of Russia, being one of the major trade centers between Scandinavia and the Black Sea or Caspian Sea. Politically, it was probably the second most powerful city in Russia (after Kiev) before the Mongol invasion in the 13th century, and since the Mongols did not destroy it, was the archive of Russian culture during the years when many cities were burnt to the ground or occupied.

Unfortunately, it was largely destroyed during World War II, but the Soviet/Russian government has tried to restore a lot of the city for its historic value, and rebuild modern parts for the people who lived there.

Source: Novgorod State United Museum,