The Santa Fe Institute is the gathering point for the study of CAS a new reactionary approach to science. In some disciplines we are might expect a wholescale paradigm shift i.e., economics.

Though it shares its subject, the general properties of complex systems across traditional disciplinary boundaries, the CAS approach is distinguished by the extensive use of models, metaphors/inductive reasoning and computer simulations, and tries to develop an understanding of emergent patterns, among individual agents such as ecologies or markets, which are less integrated or "organized" than the reductionist approaches to groking organisms, companies and machines, used by the older tradition.