Because everybody loves Logo (and I owe choosing my major to it), I present to you...
The Complete History of Logo
The first version of Logo was created by Seymour Papert (of the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory fame) in 1967. The language was created as an offshoot from Lisp. Logo was modular, interactive, highly extensible, and flexible... all these made it an EXCELLENT educational tool. One of the reasons many children like Logo is because of the turtle, a programmable sprite which can move around the screen with simple commands and draw objects. Many varieties of the turtle can morph into other sprites too, making it possible to create animation sequences.
In the 1970s, Logo was introduced to a small number of universities as a research tool, and also in some in elementary schools for educational purposes, such as the Brookline Public Schools near MIT. In the late 70s, Logo was developed for the Apple II (most uses include graphics and other programming applications) and the TI 99/4 (used mostly for action-oriented, gaming type projects). In 1980, several pilot projects across Texas and New York were initiated by TI and MIT.
Terrapin Software licensed Logo and went on to produce two versions: Terrapin Logo and Logo PLUS. 3 years later, Seymour Papert founded Logo Computer Systems, Incorporated. LCSI's first commercial offering was Apple Logo, but many others followed. Logo was gaining momentum by 1980, with versions for MSX, Commodore, Atari, and IBM PC systems. LCSI released MacLogo in 1985 as a serious programmer's application, but it never caught on.
Also that year, LCSI released LogoWriter, which went on to become one of the most popular versions of Logo. Mitchel Resnick and Steve Ocko released LEGO Logo, which interfaced Logo with the motors and sensors in LEGO constructs. Both LCSI and Terrapin refused to make any dramatic changes following this, and by the early 90s, US educators began to see Logo as a thing of the past. However, the language was still popular abroad (especially Latin America).
In 1993, LCSI released MicroWorlds, the first major change in Logo architecture in the 90s. MicroWorlds was a truly modern application with a list of new features (drawing tools, sound, graphics import and export, multitasking, parallel processing). All these features were also adapted in PCLogo for Windows.
Popular current versions of Logo include StarLogo (a massively parallel version of Logo), UCBLogo (for Macs, DOS, and Unix), and MSWLogo (for Windows).
Source: Logo Foundation, http://el.www.media.mit.edu/groups/logo-foundation/