Intracranial electrodes are electrodes that are placed inside the cranium. They record the activity of brain areas directly, as they are in direct contact with cells. Still used in animal studies, intracranial electrodes are usually left within the skull for extended periods of time, and sometimes are only removed after death. They are not used in human research nowadays, except in extreme circumstances, although they were used in the past before ethics became such a big deal in psychology.

Intracranial electrodes can record activity from specific brain regions, unlike scalp electrodes, and their recording specificity is not interfered with by the skull or scalp.

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