This is the traditional Christian prayer.  It has been used extensively in liturgies from the earliest times of the Christian era, in both Western (the Sarum, Gallican, Gregorian, modern Roman rites) and Eastern (St. John Chrysostom, St. Basil the Great, St. James, Coptic).  It is sometimes given in its Greek form, kyrie eleison, in particular contrast to the mostly Latin-phrased Western liturgies.

The prayer itself expresses that, to a Christian, "every good and perfect gift is from above," as the Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom quotes from the Epistle of St James, and that one is dependent on God.

Luke 18:9-14

He also told this parable to some who trusted in themselves that they were righteous and despised others:

"Two men went up into into the temple to pray, one a Pharisee and the other a tax collector. The Pharisee stood and prayed thus with himself: 'God, I thank thee that I am not like other men, extortioners, unjust, adulterers, or even like this tax collector. I fast twice a week, I give tithes of all that I get.'

"But the tax collector, standing far off, would not even lift up his eyes to heaven, but beat his breast, saying, 'God, be merciful to me, a sinner!'.

"I tell you, this man went down to his house justified rather than the other; for every one who exalts himself will be humbled, but he who humbles himself will be exalted."

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