An Algorithm that generates a Gröbner basis for a collection of polynomials. Thus, if you've no idea why you'd want such a thing, you should try the Gröbner basis node first.

The various definitions of a Gröbner basis in terms of ideals describe the properties desired, but do not lend themselves to easy testing of a candidate basis. This is because the ideal generated by a basis will usually be of infinite size, and hence exhaustive testing of reductions will never be completed. Fortunately, with an additional concept it is possible to reformulate the notion of a Gröbner basis into a version that not only allows for testing a finite number of cases, but in fact allows for a basis to be grown from the original set of polynomials.

**Definition:** If f and g are polynomials, the **S polynomial of f and g** is given by
S(f,g)= lcm(lm(f),lm(g)) * f/lm(f) - lcm(lm(f),lm(g)) * g/lm(g)

Where lcm denotes the least common multiple and lm the leading monomial- so lcm(lm(f),lm(g)) is the smallest monomial divisible by both leading monomials.

It may not be immediately obvious, but with respect to a given ordering, the S polynomial will be 'simpler' than either of f and g- the leading monomial of each gets annihilated during the generation of S. Recognising this, we can now define a Gröbner basis in terms of S polynomials.

Given a set of polynomials F={f_{1},..,f_{n}}, a set G={g_{1},...,g_{m}} is a **Gröbner basis** for F if the following conditions hold:
- The zeros of G are the zeros of F.
- ∀ 1≤i,j≤m, S(g
_{i},g_{j}) →*_{G} 0.

This test will (for a finite G) therefore only require finitely many reductions to be carried out. Furthermore, if any of those reductions fail, we can stop immediately as we know we don't have a Gröbner basis.

But should we? If a Gröbner basis is our goal, then all need not be lost because of a failed reduction. This is because any polynomial can be trivially reduced to zero- by itself. Furthermore, the S polynomial is an element of the ideal generated by its two arguments, and hence of that generated by the candidate basis as a whole. Thus, if we add it to the basis, we do not violate the first property (of the zeros matching).

This motivates Buchberger's algorithm. Given a finite set of polynomials F, we know a set of polynomials with the same zeros- F! So we test the second property on all the pairings of elements of F, and if any of them should fail to reduce to zero, we add it to F. This will require more pairs to be tested, but not infinitely many (see later) so in the end we will have a suitable Gröbner basis. Note, however, that the order of testing might influence the shape of our basis- since an added S polynomial might have been able to reduce a previously bad case. Essentially, we do not get a unique result unless we go to the additional effort of auto-reducing the basis- eliminating elements from it to get a minimal form.

Note that if S(f,g) reduces to 0, then so does S(g,f). This immediately simplifies the number of pairings to consider. A (pseudocode) formalisation of Buchberger's algorithm would thus look something like the following.

### Buchberger's algorithm

**Input:** F = {f_{1},..,f_{n}} a set of polynomials; < an ordering (to make sense of 'leading monomial').

**Output:** G = {g_{1},..,g_{m}} a gröbner basis for F.

// we assume that F is a perfectly good starting point as a basis, and generate our list of pairings, exploiting the symmetry of S.

G:=F; m:=n
P:={(i,j) | 1≤i<j≤n}

//Now, we wish to test all the pairings.

While P is non-empty
Remove an (i,j) from P
Find S(g_{i},g_{j}) →*_{G} h
If h equals zero, do nothing.
Else,
let g_{n+1}=h,
Set P = P ∪ { (i,n+1) | 1≤i≤n }
increase n by 1,
return G

What's going on here? Well, we wanted all the S polynomials to reduce to zero. So we consider all the pairings, testing one at a time (removing it from our list to make sure we don't test it again). If we get zero, wonderful- but if not, we add what we got to the candidate basis. Now, we know it reduces itself to zero- but we may have inadvertently added something which cannot be reduced as an S polynomial with some other basis element. So to make sure, we add in all the new possible pairings to the list for testing.

Whilst the size of P decreases by one each time an (i,j) pair is picked for testing, the size of P increases by much more than one every time we find a bad pairing. Since we only return G once our list of pairings has emptied, it seems possible that the algorithm could fail to terminate. Fortunately, a result from pure mathematics (due to Noether) saves us- every time the basis G grows, so does the ideal (lm(g)). However, an increasing sequence of ideals is finite. So eventually, no growth in G is possible.

### When will this terminate?

This is a much harder question which is of considerable interest in research. This is a somewhat naive algorithm, since we don't seek the most elegant formulation of G. In particular, if F features a large number of redundant polynomials (e.g. F={x,x^{2},x^{3},x^{4},x^{5}}), then computation time is wasted on analysing pairs of no value.

However, even if we supply a fairly well behaved F, the optimal choice of (i,j) pairs is unclear. (the pseudocode above makes no suggestions as to an approach). As discussed earlier, judicious choice of a pairing might provide us early on with an extra element that reduces many members of the basis that otherwise wouldn't- thus saving each of them generating an additional element. It seems that a good strategy is to pick a pair such that lcm(lm(g_{i}),lm(g_{j})) is of mimimal total degree (in the context of the ordering), but this isn't guaranteed to be unique.

Two other rules can save some effort in attempting the reduction of an S polynomial, as follows.

#### Buchberger's 1st Criterion

If lm(f) , lm(g) are

coprime, i.e. lcm(lm(f),lm(g))=lm(f)lm(g), then f,g suffice to reduce S(f,g) to zero. Hence, no additional element for addition to the basis will be generated from such a pair, and it is preferable to process these cases first.

#### Buchberger's 3rd Criterion

Apparently the 2nd criterion doesn't offer much help!
If there is an h in G which divides lcm(lm(f),lm(g)), and the pairings (f,h) and (g,h) have already been processed, then (f,g) →*

_{G} 0 so needn't be calculated. This saves us some computation.

### Miscellaneous notes

The ordering employed can also strongly influence the running time of Buchberger's algorithm. In particular, the generally desirable purely lexicographical ordering is a poor choice here. So much so, in fact, that it is probably preferable to carry out Buchberger's algorithm on a basis arranged in total degree reverse lexicographical order, then use the FGLM algorithm to convert that back to a pure-lex form for subsequent determination of the roots.

Churning out a Gröbner basis 'by hand' in a computer algebra system (that is, tracking the lists and pairings yourself and working interactively to calculate reductions) isn't especially fast- although it might help you understand the process for a simple example, or, like me, you may find it a coursework exercise. Generally, though, you'd throw it at a built-in package.

In Maple, you'd need to be working `with(Ore_algebra)`

and `with(Groebner)`

. Then, supposing your variables are x,y,z you can define `A:=poly_algebra(x,y,z)`

, place your list of polynomial in an array F, generate a suitable ordering by `T[org]:=termorder(A,tdeg(x,y,z)):`

, then finally use the command `G[org]:=gbasis(F,T[org]);`

to get a Gröbner basis G.

I'm not familiar with Mathematica, the other common CAS, but the MathWorld site claims that `GroebnerBasis[{poly1, poly2, ...}, {x1, x2, ...}]`

will do the trick.

**References:** CM30070 Computer Algebra, University of Bath- lecture notes, revision notes, and the lecturer's book of the same title. Also, Maple v9.5 help system for the code snippets above.