Clark, 1982. A condition that can occur in TCP when data are passed to the sending TCP entity in large blocks, but an interactive application on the receiving end reads data 1 byte at a time. The receiver repeatedly advertises a small window and the sender repeatedly sends a small segment to fill it. The resulting transmission of small segments makes inefficient use of network bandwidth. The solution is for the receiver to not send a window update until it can handle the original maximum segment size from the establishment of the connection, or when its buffer is half empty. The sender should wait until it has enough space in the window to send either a full segment or one containing half of the receiver's buffer size.

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