conversion was the first release from ulcer, a techno-industrial/dance band from Las Cruces, New Mexico. It was a four-song cassette, with one additional "hidden track".

Track listing (numbered in "side.sequence" notation; all times are approximate, since this is from tape):

  • 1.1 Delta 1 (3:41)
  • 1.2 Get Up (5:00)
  • 1.3 (untitled) (2:41)
  • 2.1 Daddy (5:19)
  • 2.2 Breaking Down (5:45)

Track 1.2 was intended to have vocals (and, indeed, Mike sings lyrics for this song when he plays it live). However, this particular version is missing the vocals, so I tend to refer to it as the "unintentional dub mix".

Conversion is a term used to describe the extent of a chemical reaction process. The concept is generally used in reaction engineering, the design of chemical reactors that convert reactants to products. Chemical conversion is expressed as a fraction, indicating the number of moles that have reacted per number of moles that could react if the reaction goes to completion. For instance, consider the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to form water.

2 H2 + O2 -> 2 H2O

The reaction above shows the stoichiometry of the reactant species: two moles of hydrogen will react with one mole of oxygen to form 2 moles of water. A more generalized form involving two product species and two reactant species is:

a A + b B -> c C + d D

The upper case letters represent chemical species, and the lower case letters represent stoichiometric coefficients. Note that the number of reactants or products could also be one, or more than two. Usually, the conversion is defined in terms of one of the reactant species. If we take species A as basis of our calculation, we have to divide the reaction expression by the stoichiometric coefficient of species A (i.e. every quantity is "per mole of A"):

A + (b/a) B -> (c/a) C + (d/a) D

The conversion of species A, XA is now defined as:

XA = moles of A reacted / moles of A fed

When dealing with only one reaction, we can omit the subscript A, since the conversion of A is equal to the conversion of B. However, with multiple (simultaneous) reactions this is not always the case.

An example: consider the reaction of hydrogen with oxygen to form water, as was stated before. First we write down the chemical reaction in terms of the hydrogen species:

H2 + (1/2) O2 -> H2O

Assume that initially, 20 moles of hydrogen and 10 moles of oxygen are present. At some point during the reaction (we're doing this under very controlled conditions, since the reaction mixture is explosive), there are 8 moles of hydrogen left, and 4 moles of oxygen. Thus, (20-8) = 12 moles of hydrogen have reacted. The conversion is:

X = 12 / 20 = 0.6 (=60%)

In Rugby Leage and Rugby Union, after a try has been scored, the scoring team has the opportunity to attempt a conversion.

A conversion is attempted through a place kick, the aim being to kick the ball over the crossbar, and through the goalposts. Typically, the ball is stood upright on the ground, using some form of tee. Traditionally, is was a mound of sand, which the ball would sit on top of. Lately though, plastic kicking tees are becoming more common, for their ease of use, and because it's easier to place the ball in the perfect position.

The position a conversion is taken from on the field is directly related to where the try was scored. The kicker must place the ball in a direct line in front of where the ball was grounded, although how far back they place the ball is up to them. This means that a try which is scored closer to the posts will allow an easier conversion attempt, because the angle to the posts is less - thus a try scored directly under the posts will allow a conversion attempt from directly in front. A try scored in the corner produces a much more difficult attempt, because of the angle to the posts, and because the ball will need to be moved further back, to try to open the angle as much as possible.

A place kick is by far the most common way to attempt a conversion, however in some forms of the game, such as fast paced sevens football, a quicker dropkick may be used.

Goalkicking is a difficult thing to be good at, so teams will have a designated goalkicker. Really skilled goalkickers are highly valued, and can contribute many points in a game of football. A successful conversion nets the team two points - in rugby league this turns a four point try into six points, in rugby union, a five point try becomes seven. If you score 3 convertied tries in rugby league, it takes 5 unconverted tries to score more points.

And for heart stopping excitement, not much tops your team drawing level in the final seconds of the game, before the conversion is attempted after the final siren has sounded. Some of the most thrilling games ever played have been decided in this way. The goalkicker with the hope of both teams and their supporters riding on their kick, on the sideline, the opposition team's supporters causing deafening noise, drumming on the advertising signs ringing the ground. And the fate of the entire game rests on one person's shoulders. It's a wonderful thing!

At Common Law:

Definition: “Wrongful detention amounting to repudiation of the owner's rights or any exercise of dominion inconsistent with such rights.”

Conversion is a tort. Tort claims are enforced by filing a private lawsuit for damages, i.e. a money judgment directing the defendant to pay for the property or the use of the property.

A lawsuit is only worth the trouble when you are likely to be able to collect the money. If the thief is a corporation, it makes sense to sue to collect a judgment in the amount of what you lost, rather than having the government levy a fine or jail a CEO. If the thief is a deadbeat, you rely on law enforcement authorities to punish the theft, as a crime.

Theft, larceny, embezzlement etc. are crimes enforced by a public lawsuit (i.e. the district attorney files criminal charges). If convicted, the defendant must pay a fine or do jail time. Crimes are wrongs against the people (the sovereign); torts are wrongs against a private person.

"Conversion" can also be distinguished from the writ of replevin. A writ of replevin is a court order to give the property back. A suit for "conversion", on the other hand, does not ask for the property, it asks for money.

Examples:

“Conversion” occurs when the defendant was supposed to give the property back, but instead deliberately kept it, intending not to return it. For example, if you rent a car, but fail to return it, you have “converted” the car.

"Conversion” also occurs when you take something before it belongs to you: if you order something with a credit card, and they charge the card before shipping, they have “converted” your money.

Finally, “conversion” includes borrowing things that don’t belong to you, but in that case the damages are limited to rental value for the period of “borrowing”, not the market value of the entire item.


Sources:

The mind of haze.

Legal citations:

W. Page Keeton et al., Prosser and Keeton on the Law of Torts, Ch. 3 § 15 (5th ed. 1984).

Restatement (Second) of Torts § 223 (1965) (listing seven ways by which conversion may be committed)

Con*ver"sion (?), n. [L. conversio: cf. F. conversion. See Convert.]

1.

The act of turning or changing from one state or condition to another, or the state of being changed; transmutation; change.

Artificial conversion of water into ice. Bacon.

The conversion of the aliment into fat. Arbuthnot.

2.

The act of changing one's views or course, as in passing from one side, party, or from of religion to another; also, the state of being so changed.

"Conversion to Christianity."

Prescott.

3. Law

An appropriation of, and dealing with the property of another as if it were one's own, without right; as, the conversion of a horse.

Or bring my action of conversion And trover for my goods. Hudibras.

4. Logic

The act of interchanging the terms of a proposition, as by putting the subject in the place of the predicate, or the contrary.

5. Math.

A change or reduction of the form or value of a proposition; as, the conversion of equations; the conversion of proportions.

6. Mil. (a)

A change of front, as a body of troops attacked in the flank.

(b)

A change of character or use, as of smoothbore guns into rifles.

7. Theol.

A spiritual and moral change attending a change of belief with conviction; a change of heart; a change from the service of the world to the service of God; a change of the ruling disposition of the soul, involving a transformation of the outward life.

He oft Frequented their assemblies, . . . and to them preached Conversion and repentance, as to souls In prison under judgments imminent. Milton.

 

© Webster 1913.

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