This is the "universal" genetic code used in translation of RNA to protein. There are alternate codon useages in Mitochondria and certain other plastids, but by and large this holds true for all prokaryotes and eukaryotes. This contains all the 3 letter and 1 letter codes for the amino acid (go there for explanation of what these represent) that correspond to each codon. It should also be noted that these are listed how they appear in DNA. In RNA, Uracil replaces thymidine.

TTT Phe F
TTC Phe F
TTA Leu L
TTG Leu L

TCT Ser S
TCC Ser S
TCA Ser S
TCG Ser S

TAT Tyr Y
TAC Tyr Y
TAA STOP
TAG STOP

TGT Cys C
TGC Cys C
TGA STOP
TGG Trp W

CTT Leu L
CTC Leu L
CTA Leu L
CTG Leu L

CCT Pro P
CCC Pro P
CCA Pro P
CCG Pro P

CAT His H
CAC His H
CAA Gln Q
CAG Gln Q

CGT Arg R
CGC Arg R
CGA Arg R
CGG Arg R

ATT Ile I
ATC Ile I
ATA Ile I
ATG START/Met M

ACT Thr T
ACC Thr T
ACA Thr T
ACG Thr T

AAT Asn N
AAC Asn N
AAA Lys K
AAG Lys K

AGT Ser S
AGC Ser S
AGA Arg R
AGG Arg R

GTT Val V
GTC Val V
GTA Val V
GTG Val V

GCT Ala A
GCC Ala A
GCA Ala A
GCG Ala A

GAT Asp D
GAC Asp D
GAA Glu E
GAG Glu E

GGT Gly G
GGC Gly G
GGA Gly G
GGG Gly G

The basis for the genetic code:

During translation (the making of protein from an RNA template), the amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) are attached to transfer RNA (tRNA). The ribosome, which is the protein making machinery, matches up the tRNA with the mRNA (which is the RNA encoding the protein). The code is the chunk of RNA that is matched up between the mRNA and the tRNA. Since each kind of tRNA is only attached to a specific amino acid, the 3-nucleotide code refers to only one possible amino acid. Three of the codes stand for no amino acid, and signals the end of the protein.

By looking at the code, you'll notice that it is degenerate, meaning that there is more than one code for some amino acids. This is explained by the fact that the third position is 'wobbly', in that the matchup between the mRNA and tRNA need not be perfect for some of the codes.

Each three letter 'word' of the genetic code is called a codon.

Rearranged alphabetically by aminco acid for your pleasure
The DNA codon triplet codes for amino acids in Protein synthesis:

Alanine:

  • CGA
  • CGG
  • CGT
  • CGC
Arginine:
  • GCA
  • GCG
  • GCT
  • GCC
  • TCT
  • TCC
Asparagine:
  • TTA
  • TTG
Aspartic Acid:
  • CTA
  • CTG
Cysteine:
  • ACA
  • ACG
Glycine:
  • CCA
  • CCG
  • CCT
  • CCC
Glutamic Acid
  • CTT
  • CTC
Glutamine
  • GTT
  • GTC
Histidine:
  • GTA
  • GTG
Isoleucine:
  • TAA
  • TAG
  • TAT
Leucine:
  • AAT
  • AAC
  • GAG
  • GAT
  • GAA
  • GAC
Lysine:
  • TTT
  • TTC
Methionine:
  • TAC
Phenylalanine:
  • AAA
  • AAG
Proline:
  • GGC
  • GGA
  • GGG
  • GGT
Serine:
  • ACA
  • ACG
Threonine:
  • TGG
  • TGC
  • TGA
  • TGT
Tryptophan:
  • ACC
Tyrosine:
  • ATA
  • ATG
Valine:
  • CAC
  • CAA
  • CAT
  • CAG
The following codons are STOP codons, they end the polypeptide chain at that point:
  • ATT
  • ATC
  • ACT
Sources: Biology 1: Mary Jones, Everything2.
Node your Homework
/msg me if you spot a problem, this took a while, but I think it's all right.

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