Unicode > Middle Eastern Scripts

Standard Unicode Disclaimer:
Not all the Unicode characters represented below or in other writeups may be viewable in your browser. In fact, some of the characters may not be viewable in any browser. This is because Unicode is an evolving and ever-growing standard which has the ability to store/represent literally millions of characters and symbols from hundreds of languages and cultures past and present, and not all software has the ability to display all the characters. If your browser does not understand the Unicode value of the character, it will usually display a small square box or a question mark. This is normal and expected behavior, and does not mean there is a problem with this writeup or your web browser. For additional information see Using Unicode on E2. In addition, you may have luck changing your font in the ekw Preferences to something such as "Arial Unicode MS" which has better Unicode support.

Additional Disclaimer for Middle Eastern Scripts: One or more of these characters seem to cause display problems for Internet Explorer by affecting the vertical spacing of page content.

The Middle Eastern Scripts are all derived from the ancient Phoenician alphabet. In addition to being used as the primary languages of certain countries, many of these scripts are used worldwide as major liturgical scripts in various religions. Most Middle Eastern scripts are abjads (or consonantaries) - meaning that while vowels are pronounced in spoken-form, there are no vowels in the written language. There are exceptions to this non-vowel representation in the modern world, as several of these scripts now use diacritical or other marks, around the consonants to denote the vowel or vowel sound used. Words in these languages are separated by spaces, sentences utilize various punctuation marks (excluding Thaana), and they have their own numeric representations. Unlike most other languages, these scripts read right to left.

The Middle Eastern scripts include:

Below you will find a list of characters and common punctuation included in the Middle Eastern scripts. Where applicable, there are additional links to writeups that include more detailed information for each block of Unicode characters.

NOTE: I have enclosed the characters in <big> tags so that it is easier to see the details of various characters you may not be familiar with.


Hebrew

Primary languages that use these characters: Hebrew, Judezmo, Ladino, Yiddish, and other languages associated with the Diaspora

HTML Display Characters: &#1424; to &#1535; (decimal) / &#x590; to &#x5ff; (hexadecimal)

֐   ֑   ֒   ֓   ֔   ֕   ֖   ֗   ֘   ֙   ֚   ֛   ֜   ֝   ֞   ֟   ֠   ֡   ֢   ֣   ֤   ֥   ֦   ֧   ֨   ֩   ֪   ֫   ֬   ֭   ֮   ֯   ְ   ֱ   ֲ   ֳ   ִ   ֵ   ֶ   ַ   ָ   ֹ   ֺ   ֻ   ּ   ֽ   ־   ֿ   ׀   ׁ   ׂ   ׃   ׄ   ׅ   ׆   ׇ   ׈   ׉   ׊   ׋   ׌   ׍   ׎   ׏   א   ב   ג   ד   ה   ו   ז   ח   ט   י   ך   כ   ל   ם   מ   ן   נ   ס   ע   ף   פ   ץ   צ   ק   ר   ש   ת   ׫   ׬   ׭   ׮   ׯ   װ   ױ   ײ   ׳   ״   ׵   ׶   ׷   ׸   ׹   ׺   ׻   ׼   ׽   ׾   ׿  


Arabic

Primary languages that use these characters: Arabic, Baluchi, Farsi, Kurdish, Lahnda, Pashto, Persian, Sindhi, and Urdu

HTML Display Characters: &#1536; to &#1791; (decimal) / &#x600; to &#x6ff; (hexadecimal)

؀   ؁   ؂   ؃   ؄   ؅   ؆   ؇   ؈   ؉   ؊   ؋   ،   ؍   ؎   ؏   ؐ   ؑ   ؒ   ؓ   ؔ   ؕ   ؖ   ؗ   ؘ   ؙ   ؚ   ؛   ؜   ؝   ؞   ؟   ؠ   ء   آ   أ   ؤ   إ   ئ   ا   ب   ة   ت   ث   ج   ح   خ   د   ذ   ر   ز   س   ش   ص   ض   ط   ظ   ع   غ   ػ   ؼ   ؽ   ؾ   ؿ   ـ   ف   ق   ك   ل   م   ن   ه   و   ى   ي   ً   ٌ   ٍ   َ   ُ   ِ   ّ   ْ   ٓ   ٔ   ٕ   ٖ   ٗ   ٘   ٙ   ٚ   ٛ   ٜ   ٝ   ٞ   ٟ   ٠   ١   ٢   ٣   ٤   ٥   ٦   ٧   ٨   ٩   ٪   ٫   ٬   ٭   ٮ   ٯ   ٰ   ٱ   ٲ   ٳ   ٴ   ٵ   ٶ   ٷ   ٸ   ٹ   ٺ   ٻ   ټ   ٽ   پ   ٿ   ڀ   ځ   ڂ   ڃ   ڄ   څ   چ   ڇ   ڈ   ډ   ڊ   ڋ   ڌ   ڍ   ڎ   ڏ   ڐ   ڑ   ڒ   ړ   ڔ   ڕ   ږ   ڗ   ژ   ڙ   ښ   ڛ   ڜ   ڝ   ڞ   ڟ   ڠ   ڡ   ڢ   ڣ   ڤ   ڥ   ڦ   ڧ   ڨ   ک   ڪ   ګ   ڬ   ڭ   ڮ   گ   ڰ   ڱ   ڲ   ڳ   ڴ   ڵ   ڶ   ڷ   ڸ   ڹ   ں   ڻ   ڼ   ڽ   ھ   ڿ   ۀ   ہ   ۂ   ۃ   ۄ   ۅ   ۆ   ۇ   ۈ   ۉ   ۊ   ۋ   ی   ۍ   ێ   ۏ   ې   ۑ   ے   ۓ   ۔   ە   ۖ   ۗ   ۘ   ۙ   ۚ   ۛ   ۜ   ۝   ۞   ۟   ۠   ۡ   ۢ   ۣ   ۤ   ۥ   ۦ   ۧ   ۨ   ۩   ۪   ۫   ۬   ۭ   ۮ   ۯ   ۰   ۱   ۲   ۳   ۴   ۵   ۶   ۷   ۸   ۹   ۺ   ۻ   ۼ   ۽   ۾   ۿ  


Syriac

Primary languages that use these characters: Christian Palestinian Aramaic (that's an oxymoron if I ever saw one), Garshuni, Palestinian Syriac, Syriac
It is also the liturgical language of Assyrian, Chaldaean, Maronite, Syrian Catholic, Syrian Orthodox, Syro-Malabar, and Syro-Malankara

HTML Display Characters: &#1792; to &#1871; (decimal) / &#x700; to &#x74f; (hexadecimal)

܀   ܁   ܂   ܃   ܄   ܅   ܆   ܇   ܈   ܉   ܊   ܋   ܌   ܍   ܎   ܏   ܐ   ܑ   ܒ   ܓ   ܔ   ܕ   ܖ   ܗ   ܘ   ܙ   ܚ   ܛ   ܜ   ܝ   ܞ   ܟ   ܠ   ܡ   ܢ   ܣ   ܤ   ܥ   ܦ   ܧ   ܨ   ܩ   ܪ   ܫ   ܬ   ܭ   ܮ   ܯ   ܰ   ܱ   ܲ   ܳ   ܴ   ܵ   ܶ   ܷ   ܸ   ܹ   ܺ   ܻ   ܼ   ܽ   ܾ   ܿ   ݀   ݁   ݂   ݃   ݄   ݅   ݆   ݇   ݈   ݉   ݊   ݋   ݌   ݍ   ݎ   ݏ  


Arabic Supplement

HTML Display Characters: &#1872; to &#1919; (decimal) / &#x750; to &#x77f; (hexadecimal)

ݐ   ݑ   ݒ   ݓ   ݔ   ݕ   ݖ   ݗ   ݘ   ݙ   ݚ   ݛ   ݜ   ݝ   ݞ   ݟ   ݠ   ݡ   ݢ   ݣ   ݤ   ݥ   ݦ   ݧ   ݨ   ݩ   ݪ   ݫ   ݬ   ݭ   ݮ   ݯ   ݰ   ݱ   ݲ   ݳ   ݴ   ݵ   ݶ   ݷ   ݸ   ݹ   ݺ   ݻ   ݼ   ݽ   ݾ   ݿ  


Thaana

Primary languages that use these characters: Dhivehi

HTML Display Characters: &#1920; to &#1983; (decimal) / &#x780; to &#x7bf; (hexadecimal)

ހ   ށ   ނ   ރ   ބ   ޅ   ކ   އ   ވ   މ   ފ   ދ   ތ   ލ   ގ   ޏ   ސ   ޑ   ޒ   ޓ   ޔ   ޕ   ޖ   ޗ   ޘ   ޙ   ޚ   ޛ   ޜ   ޝ   ޞ   ޟ   ޠ   ޡ   ޢ   ޣ   ޤ   ޥ   ަ   ާ   ި   ީ   ު   ޫ   ެ   ޭ   ޮ   ޯ   ް   ޱ   ޲   ޳   ޴   ޵   ޶   ޷   ޸   ޹   ޺   ޻   ޼   ޽   ޾   ޿  


Alphabetic Presentation Forms (includes Hebrew Presentation Forms)

HTML Display Characters: &#64256; to &#64335; (decimal) / &#xfb00; to &#xfb4f; (hexadecimal)

                                                                                                                              ﬿                                  


Arabic Presentation Forms A

HTML Display Characters: &#64336; to &#65023; (decimal) / &#xfb50; to &#xfdff; (hexadecimal)

                                                                                              ﭿ                                                                                                                                 ﮿                                                                                                                                 ﯿ                                                                                                                                 ﰿ                                                                                                                                 ﱿ                                                                                                                                 ﲿ                                                                                                                                 ﳿ                                                                                                                                 ﴿                                                                                                                                 ﵿ                                                                                                                                 ﶿ                                                                                                                                 ﷿  


Arabic Presentation Forms B

HTML Display Characters: &#65136; to &#65279; (decimal) / &#xfe70; to &#xfeff; (hexadecimal)

                              ﹿ                                                                                                                                 ﺿ                                                                                                                                   


How Do I Use These Characters in My Writeup?

Please see Unicode or Using Unicode on E2 for a quick tutorial on using these characters in your writeups. You may also find the character you need listed in HTML Symbol Reference. You will notice that each section above has the range of HTML Unicode Values specified to help you. If you would like to look up characters on your own, you can go to http://www.unicode.org/charts. Possibly a quicker way is to click on the character. If there is not a writeup for that character, the Findings:/Create a Node page will show you the HTML unicode value. If there is a writeup for that character, just click the search button again, and when you return to this writeup, you will see the HTML unicode value displayed in the search box.

See Also

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