The war of the peninsula and the condition of 1812

1808-1813: The Spanish people rises against the French rule (2 May 1808) and with English assistance Napoleon is struck. The war of the peninsula (war of independence) was a code factor with the crystallization of the Spanish nationality.

1808: The unstable old order, which had opened the doors for the invasion, fell at the same time with a crisis of the dynasty, which endangered the enormous prestige of the thousand-year old crown seriously. Ferdnando, led by prince von Asturien and Thronfolger, plots against Godoy, which for prime minister, who was made responsible was publicly accused the lover of the queen to be and for all bad states of this turbulent time. In March 1808 Godoy withdrew and Carlo's IV. resigned to favour of its son, but irreparable damage had been caused to the monarchy.

Napoleon, who had not recognized the rule Fernandos VII, decided to use the Spanish dynasty crisis and to replace Bourbons by Bonapartes. In order to achieve this, he let come the Spanish king family to Bayonne and forced Fernando of VII to favour his father to resign, who resigned again to favour of Joseph Bonaparte. It was a ceremony, with which all formalities were kept and which was held by all public mechanisms and high personalities of the kingdom The Bonapartes tried, the political regime with "the law of Bayonne " which was planned for 8 July 1808. Although this document is historically seen as very important, it has neither legal nor practical meaning, because it never entered into force. However it was the first condition text, which appeared in Spain.

The reforms introduced by this law could not be executed by Joseph Bonaparte, without a majority of the Spaniards rejected them likewise like the new monarchy, which one regarded as illegal and as product of a betrayal.

The result was a general rebellion, which began on 2 May, and which was perpetuated by Goya in its paintings.

The Spanish war, which is what you would call it in France, took six years. The Spaniards called it the war of independence, a national war.

1810: But if the war of the peninsula is to be considered as a milestone in the history of the revolutions, one must emphasize likewise the establishment of administration and legal mechanisms, other means, with which the country could defend itself against the intruders. The opening session of the new Cortes was held on 24 September 1810. The following basic principles were decided: the government authority proceeds from the people; the authentication Fernando VII as king of Spain and the inviolability of the delegates. The Cortes of Cadiz operated very intensively and the first Spanish condition text (on 12 March 1812) announced in Cadiz.

1812: This was the the beginning of the Spanish condition. Since then Spain had sieved conditions, including since 1978 the valid. The law by Bayonne, approved of by Joseph I. 1808, is'nt considered, thereby since many authors it not when regard condition in the actual sense, but as a result of the invasion by Napoleon.

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