The Sopwith F.1 Camel, successor to the Pup, was produced by the Sopwith Aviation Company and is one the few biplanes that the average person knows by name.
The Camel was the primary air defense vehicle for the European Allies, and from July 1917 to the end of World War I was responsible for the downing of over 1200 Axis planes.
The Camel was one of the two most maneuverable planes of the time, sharing this distinction with the German Fokker Triplane. But with that much power comes responsibility, and the Camel is credited with also killing more of its own pilots than any other plane in history. The engines used, which varied from a 110 HP Clerget to a 150 HP Bentley, had very unusual torque characteristics; in takeoff, applying full right rudder was required until the plane had attained speed, otherwise there was a very real chance the plane would be flipped around by the torque and head straight back into the ground.
Even today, due to it's small size and overpowered engine, the Camel is still considered one of the 5 most maneuverable planes of all time, even outstripping the the venerable F-15 when it comes to maximum angle of climb.
The name 'Camel' comes from the plane have two 'Vickers' Machine guns, which the breaches of said guns enclosed in a camel-like 'hump' on the plane.