(J.R.R. Tolkien > Arda > languages > Sindarin)

The parts of speech in Sindarin include verbs, nouns, personal pronouns, and the following:



i = the
e.g. i Drann "the Shire"
i Estel "the Hope"
i Wenyn "the twins"(*)

(*) - Unusual, as normally a plural definite (in) would be employed here, e.g. i adar "the man" > in edain "the men".

The Plural Definite Article, in triggers nasal lenition,
e.g. tîw "letter" > i thîw "the letters" (representing in tîw)
but i tîw "the letter" (sg.)

en = genitive definite article,
also seen in prepositions
e.g. na "to" > nan "to the"

There is no indefinite article



dan "but"


a/ar "and"
(N.B. a < as < *a(h))

sa "that"


egor "or"


Please note, Ryszard Derdzinski has compiled an extensive list of attested adverbs, adjective, and prepositions, in his article Summary of Sindarin Grammar (available at http://www.elvish.org/gwaith/sindarin_intro.htm ). The lists include numerals; adverbs of place, time, manner, order, quantity, certainty, and interrogatives; and prepositions. I have not duplicated these here, because I do not have anything substantive to add to his work, nor have I asked his permission to duplicate these list on e2.

The following points should be made about these parts of speech, however:


Prepositions go before the noun in a sentence, and the noun will undergo consonantal mutation (lenition).
Adjective usually follow a noun, save for indefinite particles, and interrogative and exclamative particles.

Adjectives must agree in number with the noun. They are either descriptive, comparative, or superlative in nature.

Interrogatives & negatives:
Interrogative sentences use interrogative particles and interrogative adverbs.

Negative sentences use negative adverb la (law before a verb).

Also ú "bad, uneasy, hard". Both la, and ú cause lenition.


  • Derdzinski, Ryszard, Summary of Sindarin Grammar, at http://www.elvish.org/gwaith/sindarin_intro.htm
  • Fauskanger, Helge K., Sindarin the Noble Tongue, at http://www.uib.no/People/hnohf/sindarin.htm
  • -, proposed Sindarin Course, [avail. Online, but URL unknown at present]
  • own notes

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