Southernmost of the two islands between Italy and France, belonging to the former. King Victor Emmanuel II reigned here in the 19th century, and with the assistance of an opera composer named Giuseppi Verdi, reunified Italy for the first time since the end of the Roman Empire. I am not making this up. There are lots of sardines here, though it does not yet have a global monopoly on them yet.

The 1713 Treaty of Utrecht ending the War of the Spanish Succession saw Spain's dominions in Italy parceled away to just about anyone who asked for something. Sardinia and Naples were given to Austria; the island of Sicily was given to Savoy (aka Piedmont). Since Sicily had been a kingdom since the Middle Ages, Duke Victor Amadeus was now King of Sicily, even though the whole thing was ruled from Turin, capital of Savoy.

In a little 1717-1720 mini-war just after the War of the Spanish Succession, Spain attempted to conquer Sicily back. The British and Austrians prevented them. Well, having gone to the trouble and expense of conquering Sicily themselves, Austria certainly wasn't going to give it back to the Piedmontese, so they gave Victor Amadeus Sardinia as a consolation prize.

The new agglomeration was named the Kingdom of Sardinia, because Victor Amadeus was now a king and couldn't be made less than a king. It was still, however, ruled from Turin.

N.B. This writeup also mentions both parts of another kingdom named after a province, rather than the ruling region. The War of Austrian Succession saw Naples set up on its own right as a kingdom, with Sicily thrown in for good measure. Since Sicily had been a kingdom for slightly longer than Naples had been, the agglomeration was called the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies. The king ruled Sicily from Naples until Piedmont..err, Sardinian forces kicked him out in 1860, creating the first state that could be called Italy with a straight face.

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