The time period from ~ 27BC to ~ 180 AD during which time Rome was its Apex. The Mediterranean area was ruled by the Romans, and quality of life was generally better than it would for more than 1000 years. Rome spread peace through power (therefore Roman Peace).
Other world powers have tried to have similar eras, such as the Pax Anglicana for the British Empire, and Pax Americana, for the current superpower the U.S. which of course isn't working too well.

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