AKA Feline scabies, face mange, and ear mites. It is sometimes identified as sarcoptic mange, even by professionals; this usually doesn't make a difference, as the two are closely related.
Notoedric mange is caused by an infection of mites of the species Notoedres cati*, and is the primary cause of mange in cats. It can also infect dogs, hamsters, and rabbits. It can cause temporary itching in humans, but it cannot reproduce on a human host. It causes itching, dry, crusty and scaly skin, and, eventually, hair loss. It usually appears first around the face, particularly the ears.
Notoedric mange can be easily identified by viewing the skin scrapings of an infected animal under a microscope. One thing to watch out for are ear mites (Otodectes cyanotis), which cause similar symptoms, and are, obviously, also mites. If you (or better yet, your veterinarian) find Notoedres cati living on your cat, you can treat the infestation with lime sulfur dips (best, but smelly, and may require trimming of long hair), Amitraz dips (not safe, and not approved for cats), Ivermectin injections (not approved for cats, but usually safe), and Selamectin (same disclaimer as Ivermectin). All cats who come in close contact with a cat known to be infected should also be treated, as the mites spread through bodily contact.
Notoedric mange is rare in the United States as a whole, although there are hotspots of infection, such as in Southern California. I have not been able to find any information on any other countries.
* Notoedres muris
occurs on rats
and Notoedres musculi
, causing notoedric mange in those animals. This is often called ear mange
, as it is in cats.