An n x n square with the elements from a set S of size n occurring exactly once in each row and column. The set S is usually {0, ..., n-1} in papers concerning them, as any element can then be referred to as (row + column) modulo n (in the case of the group table for the cyclic group of order n).

The study of Latin squares is a branch of combinatorics and people like to write about critical sets and mutually orthogonal Latin squares.

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