Here's a summary of verb inflections in Tokyo-style Japanese (as opposed to Osaka)

The four verbs I have used here to show inflections are suru, an irregular verb, kuru, also irregular, kaku, a Godan verb, and taberu, an Ichidan verb. I have been unable to locate or remember inflections for the more obscure forms of kuru, so I won't include the ones I can't find for now. I try to use Hepburn romanisation when I can. I can't remember whether double vowels are expressed as "oo" or as "ou", so I'll use "ou". I've also marked inflections I'm not sure of with (?).

Sorry for the long pre-tag but it's the only way I can think of to do it.

Form                  suru             kuru            kaku              taberu
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plain                 suru             kuru            kaku              taberu
plain negative        shinai           konai           kakanai           tabenai
perfect               shita            kita            kaita             tabeta
perfect neg.          shinakatta       konakatta       kakanakatta       tabenakatta
neutral               shimasu          kimasu          kakimasu          tabemasu
neut. negative        shimasen         kimasen         kakimasen         tabemasen
neut. perfect         shimashita       kimashita       kakimashita       tabemashita
neut. perfect neg.    shimasen deshita kimasen deshita kakimasen deshita tabemasen deshita
These are the plain forms of verbs. When a verb is in the negative form (-nai), it is inflected similarly to an -i adjective. The neutral perfect negative is a combination of the neutral perfect and the gerund "desu". The neutral is sometimes called "polite".
Gerundive             shite            kite            kaite             tabete
Gerudive neg.         shinaide         konaide         kakanaide         tabenaide

The gerundive is often used to join it to other verbs, eg in the request forms -te kudasai, -te morau, -te kureru. It is also used to express continuation by joining it to iru, -te iru expressing an action in progress. Joining it to aru also expresses continuation, but implies that the action was already done by others, e.g., kaite arimasu, "it was written there".

Since the -nai ending may be conjugated as an adjactive, you can also form a negative gerundive form with the adverbial-ku ending

It is also common in colloquial speech to hear the -te shimau form (which expresses regret) shortened to -chau, or -chimau, e.g. tabechau; and -te wa to -cha

Gerundive neg. 2      shinakute        konakute        kakanakute        tabenakute
Desiderative (self)   shitai           kitai           kakitai           tabetai
Desiderative (others) shitagaru        kitagaru        kakitagaru        tabetagaru
The desiderative ending -tai (to want to ...) can also be inflected similarly to an adjective. To refer to the desires of others the -tagaru suffix is used.
"While" form 1        shinagara        kinagara        kakinagara        tabenagara
"While" form 2        shigatera        kigatera        kakigatera        tabegatera
-tari                 shitari          kitari          kaitari           tabetari
"Should" form         su(ru)beki       kurubeki        kakubeki          taberubeki

I can't remember the formal names for the above forms, but they both express simultaneous action. The -nagara, -gatera almost directly translates to "While ...", i.e., tachinagara yomu, is to read while standing. The -tari form usually is used to expressed a range of actions one did over the same time period, among other things. For example, as an answer to the textbook question "what did you do on the weekend? (shuumatsu wa nani o shimashita ka)" you might answer in similar textbook fashion: "ongaku o kiitari hon o yondari shimashita". The -beki forms mean that some thing "should" be, but isn't really a verb inflection more than a suffix attached to the plain form.

The -gatera and -beki form isn't common, in my experience

Conditional 1         sureba           kureba          kakeba            tabereba
Cond. 1 Neg.          shinakereba      konakereba      kakanakereba      tabenakereba
Conditional 2         shitara          kitara          kaitara           tabetara
Cond. 2 Neg.          shinakattara     konakattara     kakanakattara     tabenakattara
These two conditionals both can be translated as "if..." but differ slightly in usage. the -tara form can be used as a loose "when...", as in ittara kaimasu; I will buy it if/when I go. The negative is formed by an adjectival inflection of -nai, and is often used to form -nakereba ikenai/naranai/dame/word of prohibition, which translates as "must", but literally is "it will not do if I do not do this".
Volitional            shiyou           koyou           kakou             tabeyou
VOlitional Neut.      shimashou        kimashou        kakimashou        tabemashou
Potential             dekiru           koreru          kakeru            taberareru

The volitional expresses a suggestion, and is often translated as "Let's...". There are a whole class of verbs in Japanese which are kanji compounds + suru (e.g., sentaku suru, to select). Some of these verbs are not inflected into the potential form with dekiru, but with -seru, e.g. yaku suru, to translate, yaku seru, to be able to translate.

Passive               sareru           korareru        kakareru          taberareru
Causative             saseru           kosaseru        kakaseru          tabesaseru
Causative Passive     saserareru       kosaserareru    kakaserareru      tabesaserareru

The passive has many uses in Japanese, including expressing that an action is out of your control. Three distinct usages of the passive exist, and there is a distinction between the use of a "direct" passive, and an "indirect" passive. Use of the direct passive with transitive verbs has implications of regret or adversity. Also, the causative passive seems complicated to use, but not to think about, e.g. I was stopped by the policeman; o-mawari san ni tomesaseraremashita.

Further to a note passed by Broccolist, with Godan verbs, the causative passive forms are usually slightly shortened to -sareru, e.g. tobasareru. However, kahen verbs are excepted from this rule. Kahen verbs are those which end in -ku, but are slightly irregular (most notably in this form). Kaku happens to be a kahen verb, one of the very few to my knowledge, and the proper causative passive for it is the form listed above. The -serareru is the only form that holds for all Godan verbs without exception, but is not as common as the -sareru form.

Brusque imperative    shiro            koi             kake              tabero
Imp. Neg.             suruna           kuruna          kakuna            taberuna 
Nasai imperative      shinasai         kinasai         kakinasai         tabenasai
Tamae imperative      shitamae         kitamae         kakitamae         tabetamae
The nasai imperative is the most "polite" of the imperatives. Imperatives are not used when a request is meant, e.g., come to my party, as to do so is rather rude. It is formed from stem of the polite verb nasaru. It is sometimes simply shortened to -na.

These last few are not common, except for sezu

-zu form              sezu                             kakazu             tabezu
Contemptuous          shiyagaru        kiyagaru        kakiyagaru         tabeyagaru
The -zu form means "instead of", "without". The -yagaru form expresses contempt for the doer of the action.

These ones are literary. There are many more literary verb conjugations than are listed here, mainly occuring in poems, classical Japanese, etc., but these are the only ones that I know of that are used.

Literary Neg.         surumai          kurumai         kakumai            taberumai
-beshi form           surubeshi        kurubeshi       kakubeshi          taberubeshi
The -mai form emphasises the negative. The -beshi form expresses responsibility, a stronger form of "should".

I do not consider compound verbs formed with such verbs like sugiru, dasu, kawaru, kakaru, etc, to be proper verb inflections.

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