In alphabetical order:

aburage = abura-age = deep-fried tofu
Notes: These are used to make inari sushi. (See Sushi Talk for more ways to say sushi.) They're readily available in Asian markets.

aka miso = red miso

awase miso
Substitutes: equal parts red miso and white miso See also: miso

bean curd

bean paste This name is used for both bean sauce and miso.

dark miso = hatcho miso
Substitutes: red miso (made from barley instead of soybeans, not as pungent) See also: miso

deep-fried tofu See aburage. It's just up there

hatcho miso

inaka miso

mellow white miso

miso = soybean paste = bean paste
Shopping hints: Look for this in Japanese food markets or health food stores. There are hundreds of varieties in Japan. The darker kinds are generally saltier and more pungent (YAY!), the lighter are sweeter and milder. In North America and Europe, you're most likely to find the dark and strong-tasting dark miso, the milder red miso and yellow miso, and the sweet white miso. Some stores also carry awase miso, which is a combination of red miso and white miso. Powdered soup mixes made with miso and dashi also are available.
Cooking notes: Add miso to soups and stews at the end; boiling it destroys beneficial bacteria.

natto: fermented soy beans
(see also How Can You Make Natto (Japanese Fermented Soybean Treat)?)

nigari tofu
Substitutes: Firm tofu, drained

red miso = aka miso = sendai miso = inaka miso
Substitutes: yellow miso (milder) OR (for soups) dark miso (use smaller amount) OR 1 T = 1 vegetable (or beef) bouillon cube See also: miso

sendai miso

shinshu miso

soybean curd See yuba.

soybean paste

sweet white miso

Notes: Indonesian in origin, this is a slab of rotting soybeans bound together by a white mould. It often has unsightly black spots. This is actually normal. It does not mean it has turned bad or is off. But I can't honestly say that tempeh is ever good. Maybe you can. It's not as horrid and nasty if used in an Indonesian context with many chiles. Personally I prefer tofu and have been heard to cry out All Hail Lord Seitan!.

textured (or texturized) soy protein = TSP = textured (or texturized) vegetable protein = TVP = plant protein = vegetable protein
Notes: This is a substitute for kibbles 'n bits or perhaps ground beef. It is made from defatted soya flour. When you reconstitute it, change the water several times. Put it in a chili made with habanero chiles and it's okay.

textured vegetable protein See just above. Right there.

tofu = bean curd = soybean curd
Varieties: soft tofu = silken tofu, regular tofu = medium tofu, firm tofu = cotton tofu, and extra-firm tofu. Nigari tofu is very firm.
Notes: There also are flavoured varieties. Chinese tofu tends to be firmer and sweeter than Japanese tofu. Refrigerate. Replace the water in the tofu container daily to prolong storage time. TSP See textured soy protein.

TVP See textured soy protein.

white miso Includes: mellow white miso and sweet white miso
Substitutes: yellow miso OR 1 T = 1 vegetable bouillon cube. See also: miso

yellow miso = shinshu miso
Substitutes: white miso OR 1 T = 1 vegetable bouillon cube See also: miso

yuba = soy milk skin

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