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42. Telegram From the Embassy in the Soviet Union to the Department
Moscow, March 10, 1961, 11 a.m.
/1/Source: Department of State, Central Files, 611.61/3-1061. Secret.
2136. Eyes only Secretary. I had assumed Khrushchev's reference to need
find reason for his meeting with President was motivated by need for explanation
to ChiComs./2/ In plane returning Moscow however
I queried Dobrynin re meaning Khrushchev's remark and he replied he thought
Khrushchev had in mind merely what kind statement would be made to press.
He thought my remark to him that meeting would be presented simply as opportunity
two statesmen get acquainted and review problems of mutual interest would
cover matter but pointed out this was not fully made clear in letter.
/2/See paragraph 3, Document 41.
Khrushchev obviously pleased with President's initiative and believe it
moderated position he took on various problems discussed.
He appeared extremely tired and his appearance shocked even Soviets who accompanied
me. He said he was leaving today for Aklominsk and would go from there to
Alma Ata returning Moscow about March 23 or 24. When I inquired when party
program for October Congress would be published he replied in August or possibly
earlier. He said he planned go Central Asia in early April for rest and work
on program. He pointed out too early go Black Sea. He took pills during
lunch and drank only small amount red wine. During lunch in addition usual
toast to President, etc. he remarked President had asked him use diplomatic
channel and he wished propose toast to this method getting some results.
43. Telegram From the Embassy in the Soviet Union to the Department of State/1/
Moscow, March 10, 1961, 5 p.m.
/1/Source: Department of State, Central Files, 411.6141/3-1061. Confidential; Priority; Limit Distribution.
2146. Trade. I told Khrushchev we have been reviewing restrictions on import
of Soviet crabmeat and hoped be able lift them. I said I realized this
would be small step but I believed it was in right direction. I said we did
not want to say anything publicly for present./2/
To my surprise Khrushchev displayed considerable satisfaction and agreed this
would be good move. He said we must normalize our relations and that it is
difficult to explain why USSR has little commerce with US when it trades
with other Western powers. He brought up recent cancellation of grinding
machines and said USSR can fly its rockets without US machines. (On return
trip Dobrynin told me Hammer/3/ had told Khrushchev
they would soon receive good news about an export license without specifying
what it was for. Soviets had assumed it was for grinding machines and had
therefore been particularly surprised at cancellation.) I gave Khrushchev
confidential explanation this transaction and little lecture on how American
Govt operates. I told him I had discussed with Secretary Hodges importance
of maintaining license once it had been issued and that he had agreed this
/2/On March 20 the Department of the Treasury announced that it was lifting the ban on the importation of Soviet crab meat.
/3/See Document 32.
Khrushchev expressed opinion that small minority in US is blinded by hatred for USSR and expressed regret because their attitude does not create conditions for trust. He also raised question of purchase of urea factories and said if US would sell them USSR ready to buy them. He said USSR had already purchased three from Netherlands. He said USSR had lived 200 years without such factories and could live a few years more. Later at luncheon he said USSR does not compete with US in trade field and could be very good consumer of its goods. If we had different trade relations, he said, they would not have been developing some branches of their industry and instead would be buying from us.
44. Airgram From the Embassy in the Soviet Union to the Department of
Moscow, March 14, 1961.
/1/Source: Department of State, Central Files, 611.61/3-1461. Confidential; Limit Distribution.
G-665. The following miscellaneous items supplement reports on my recent conversation with Khrushchev. Most of these points arose during informal luncheon conversation.
(1) During luncheon I mentioned to Khrushchev that one area for cooperation
between the US and USSR would be Outer Space. Khrushchev replied that
he agreed, but he did not pursue the subject.
(2) Khrushchev said that he had received many letters from statesmen abroad and that these emphasized that much depended upon Soviet relations with the US.
(3) Khrushchev recalled his recent conversation with Mr. Hammer and repeated
much of what the Embassy has already reported; namely, that Hammer was the
first foreign concessionaire in the Soviet Union, that when Hammer was in
Rostov both Mikoyan and Voroshilov/2/ were there,
that Hammer was able to visit the pencil factory that he had organized in
Moscow. Khrushchev seemed much impressed by Hammer and recalled he had been
told that Hammer had earned nearly $1 million at the same time that he was
attending college. Khrushchev also repeated what he had told Hammer about
the Soviet process of making synthetic rubber directly from gas. He referred
with pride to fact that Hammer's nephew had recently visited U.S. and had
been urged to stay but had preferred return to Soviet Union.
/2/Kliment Y. Voroshilov, Marshal of the Soviet Union and member of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
(4) When I mentioned to Khrushchev at luncheon that there were few important direct problems between the US and the USSR, that our differences lay outside bilateral relations, he readily assented.
(5) During our discussion of Germany, Khrushchev to illustrate what little
importance West Berlin has for the USSR said that the annual Soviet population
increase is 3.5 million and that the total population of West Berlin is 2
million-- "one night's work."
(6) In talking about Soviet desire to purchase urea plants, Khrushchev said that Garst/3/ had advised him to procure such plants.
/3/Presumably this is reference to Roswell Garst whose farm in Coons Rapids, Iowa, Khrushchev visited in 1959 during his trip to the United States.
(7) During our discussion on disarmament, Khrushchev interjected the remark
that Stevenson in the UN seemed to go astray like Lodge./4/
He then inquired what Lodge was doing at the present time. I told him I understood
Lodge was connected with an international educational foundation.
/4/Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr., former U.S. Representative to the United Nations.
(8) Khrushchev spoke with great conviction of the need to reform the United
Nations set-up. He asserted that the US had mis-used its voting majority but
what did this prove? The day might soon come when the majority would be against
the US and we would then understand the Soviet position. Great powers could
not be made to do things against their vital interests by UN votes. The veto
provision in the UN charter had been very wise and something must be done
so that the UN Secretariat could not act in favor of one side. The only solution
he could find was his proposal for a three-man Secretary-General.
(9) When I mentioned that President had many important domestic problems to tackle Khrushchev remarked that all countries had their internal problems.
(10) Khrushchev not only stated that Soviet Union would overtake US in
per capita industrial production by 1970 but added that later--presumably
by end 20-year plan--their output per capita would be double ours. He added,
however, that we need have nothing to fear from this. I observed that the
Soviet Union would have to begin to devote more of their resources and manpower
to service industries. Khrushchev agreed and said they were far behind us
in this field.
(11) Khrushchev said his daughter Rada had come out to join him two days
before but she did not appear at lunch as she was doing some work at the Novosibirsk
Academy of Science. He mentioned that Rada's husband, Adjubei, had met President
Kennedy when he was in the United States with a delegation of journalists
that had been invited to the Kennedy home. Khrushchev spoke with approval
of number of young men in new administration and observed that it was important
to develop leaders by giving them responsibility early in life.
FOREIGN RELATIONS OF THE UNITED STATES - 1961-1963 - Volume V - Soviet Union P21