> The Silmarillion
Fingolfin was the second son of Finwë and Indis; he was the brother of Finarfin and half-brother of Fëanor. He had three children: Fingon, Turgon, and Aredhel. Unlike Fëanor, Fingolfin was temperate and forgiving. He participated in Fëanor march to Middle-Earth at the urging of his sons. He and the people he led were deserted by Fëanor at Araman, and was forced to cross the Helcaraxë in order to enter Middle-Earth. During this march, the Valar gave rise to the Moon. Afterwards, Fingolfin settled at Hithlum and prepared for war against Melkor.
After the death of Fëanor, Fingolfin became High King of the Noldor. The title would have gone to Fëanor's son Maedhros, but he repented of his deeds in the Kinslaying and deferred the title to Fingolfin and his line. During the Siege of Angband, the Edain entered Beleriand and Fingolfin allied with the House of Hador, who settled in Dor-lómin.
During the Dagor Bragollach (Battle of the Quick Fire), Fingolfin percieved the defeat of the Noldor and rode in a rage to the doors of Angband. Here he smote upon the doors and challenged Melkor to single combat. Fingolfin fought bravely, but was not able to overcome the mightiest of the Ainur. He gave Melkor seven great wounds, and was crushed by his hammer Grond. Upon his fall, Thorondor, the Lord of Eagles came down and saved the body of Fingolfin and gave Melkor another great wound. Fingolfin was buried in northern Echoriath. His son Turgon came later and built a cairn over his father's remains.
Fingolfin was considered the noblest and most valiant of the sons of Finwë. His sword, Ringil, was said to glitter like ice. Along with Ringil, he bore a blue shield with a single great silver jewel in the center of it. His banners were blue and silver.
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Fingon Turgon Aredhel