One of the world's great conductor
s, born at Parma
. He studied cello
at Parma and Milan
, and while playing in Rio de Janeiro
was suddenly called upon to replace the conductor, whereupon Toscanini produced a triumphant performance
He later conducted at La Scala, Milan, the Metropolitan Opera House, New York, the New York Philharmonic and the Bayreuth and Salzburg festivals. He also brought into being the National Broadcasting Orchestra of America. Toscanini died in New York in 1957.