One of the world's great conductors, born at Parma, Italy in 1867. He studied cello at Parma and Milan, and while playing in Rio de Janeiro was suddenly called upon to replace the conductor, whereupon Toscanini produced a triumphant performance of Aida.

He later conducted at La Scala, Milan, the Metropolitan Opera House, New York, the New York Philharmonic and the Bayreuth and Salzburg festivals. He also brought into being the National Broadcasting Orchestra of America. Toscanini died in New York in 1957.

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