Actually called Hindu-Arabic Numerals, this is the system we use today, consisting of 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. Developed around 600AD in India, it was popularized in Europe, and consequentially in the Western world, by Fibonacci's book Liber Abaci.

Despite the name, those numerals are not to be confused with:

  • Arabic (Unicode calls those Arabic-Indic digits). While forming the same decimal system with a zero sign, Arabs commonly use differently-shaped digits. The Arabic digits are shaped similary to the Arabic letters, and are written right-to-left, just as the Arabic text. That makes their right-to-left language a bit easier. From zero to nine, here they are: ٠ ١ ٢ ٣ ٤ ٥ ٦ ٧ ٨ ٩ (presented in Unicode, and right to left if your browser is smart enough).
  • Devanagari (Hindu) digits. Also ranging from 0 to 9, those are written as: ० १ २ ३ ४ ५ ६ ७ ८ ९

References: The Unicode Consortium's code charts for information on Devanagari.

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