Anno Domini 1203, 599-600 AH

Born in 1203:

Died in 1203: Events of 1203:
  • The Fourth Crusade becomes more, well, ByzantineByzantine Emperor Alexius III had gained power from his brother Isaac II by blinding him and expelling him from Constantinople.  Meanwhile, having conquered the Dalmatian town of Zara as payment for Venetian Doge Enrico Dandolo transporting them to the Holy Land, the Crusaders are spending the winter at Zara, when who should arrive but Isaac's son Alexius and his patron, King Philip of Swabia.  Philip and Alexius persuade the Crusaders to put off going to Jerusalem for a while, and make their next stop in Constantinople.

    Isaac had been a bad Emperor, but Alexius III was even worse, to the extent that when the Crusaders' ships appear in June, none of the few provinces remaining lift a finger to help.  After a brief siege, Alexius flees Constantinople (looting the treasury first) and the 'Latins' reinstate Isaac, with Alexius IV as co-emperor.   During the seige, Phidias's statue of Athena, brought there by Constantine I from the Parthenon, is destroyed.
     

  • Father Domingo de Guzmán begins a mission to the Langue D'oc region to convert the Albigenses' (Cathars) allegiance back to Rome.  He will not be successful in this, but this mission leads to his founding his own monastic order.  Pope Innocent III decides to use more forceful methods, starting the Congregation of the Holy Office, better known as the Inquisition.
     
  • Arthur's death while in John's Rouen prison is assumed to be murder, and John loses all support from his French fiefs. French King Philip II's campaign in Normandy gains momentum, taking everything but Château-Gaillard on the coast.
     
  • Benedictine monks establish a monsatery on the Scottish isle of Iona.  Their catherdral replaces a church built by Saint Columba.
     
  • Llywelyn ap Iorwerth gains sole control over Gwynedd.
     
  • Genghis Khan begins his reign by conquering the Tengut (Xi Xia) kingdom.
     
  • Mohammed Ghori consolidates his control of Afghanistan.

1202 - 1203 - 1204

How They Were Made - 13th Century

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