Storm troopers are totally loyal to the Emperor, storm troopers make most of the Imperial army. Storm troopers serve both the ground-based armies of Palpatine's forces, and the Imperial Starfleet.
Storm troopers are completely encased in a white armored spacesuit shell, and are armed with blaster pistols or blaster rifles. Their helmets contain comlinks for long-range communications. They feature concussion grenades, mini-proton torpedo launchers, a blaster cannon, and laser-cutters. Officers are ranked by the colored shoulder pads.
Specific environments call for specially trained and equipped storm troopers, such as the snow troopers that over ran the ice world of Hoth and the lightly armored scout troopers that patrolled the forests of Endor. There are sea troopers, which feature modified scout armor that has breathing tanks, flippers, and a helmet-mounted spotlight.
Blackhole storm troopers are an under cover branch of Imperial storm trooper army. Blackhole storm troopers wear the same armor as regular storm troopers, except that it was painted black and coated in a polymer paint type substance that made them invisible to sensors.
Desert storm troopers, or sand troopers, are almost exactly like normal storm troopers except for their specialized training and slightly modified armor. The sand troopers are independent thinkers.
Scout troopers are usually assigned to garrison posts. Their missions often made it so they were equipped with speeder bikes; these men were usually called biker scouts. A scout's armor is more flexible and lighter than a normal trooper's.
The zero-G troopers, or space trooper, are trained exclusively for space combat. They wear very large suits of armor. Their suit is just like a miniature spacecraft, with propulsion systems, sensor systems, and weapons. When fully dressed, space troopers stand over two meters tall and are twice as wide as an unarmored soldier.
Other troopers include radiation troopers, flying air troopers, tunneling troopers, and magma troopers.
based on the information from: www.starwars.com