Emacs elisp (and most other lisp implementations) also use bytecode. Some interpreted versions of BASIC, such as Applesoft, tokenized the code into bytecode. The UCSD P-code was sort of an early bytecode system.

Note that while the instructions in bytecode may be just a byte, bytecode may also contain strings, integers, floats, etc., which will be stored in their binary, native formats for the language (which are most probably a word or longer).