Well, there's money and then there's currency (the actual bills). Money can be created from the sources listed above, it doesn't require any intervention by the government.

If I dig up a fabulous diamond and you want it, you could borrow money from a bank (using the diamond you're going to buy as collateral) and buy the diamond from me. By doing this, we've just created money. The economy is a little larger. The bank doesn't have to actually have all the money it lends, just a certain percentage of it.

Currency is different. The government issues currency and none exists without their consent. Currency really doesn't matter, though, it's money that counts. Interestingly, there isn't all that much currency issued at any given time. Think about it: you may have a thousand bucks in the bank, but only a five and two ones in your wallet.