An iteroparous organism is one that reproduces more than once in its life-time. We are an iteroparous species. Iteroparous individuals are faced with an interesting problem: given a limited amount of resources to convert into reproductive output or survival, and some probability of death at every generation, how much should one invest now or save later? For someone studying ecology, behaviour, or evolution, this might be called an optimality model. I believe that R.A. Fisher originally developed this concept of reproductive value (see The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection, 2nd ed., p.27. (c) 1958 Dover). But now I've wandered off on a tangent.
See also semelparous.