Bibliographic references generally reside at the end of a document, inside a bibliographic list (called a bibliography. They are used to indicate to the reader where to find another document, that is cited. Examples of documents containing such lists are: scientific papers, reports, thesis, etc.

No standard representation rules exists. That's why applied rules depend on the domain of the document.

However, some bibliography management tools exist: BibTeX, EndNote Plus, Refer, Pro-Cite, Reference Manager, Papyrus, Notebuilder, etc. They manage two levels:

  1. the logical level, defining what should be put in a reference,
  2. the physical level, defining how to present a reference

Samples (extracted from a French PhD thesis style):

S. Forrest.
Emergent computation: Self-organizing, collective, and cooperative phenomena in natural and artificial computing networks.
Physica, D(42):1-11, 1990.
French et Hofstadter1991
R. M. French et D. R. Hofstadter.
Tabletop: A stochastic, emergent model of analogy-making.
Dans Proceedings of the 13th annual conference of the Cognitive Science Society, Hillsdale, NJ, 1991. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Goossens et al.1993
M. Goossens, F. Mittelbach et A. Samarin.
The LATEX Companion.
Addison-Wesley, 1993.
Hofstadter et Gabora1990
D. R. Hofstadter et L. M. Gabora.
Synopsis of the workshop on humor and cognition.
Humor, 2(4):417-440, 1990.
Hofstadter et Group1995
D. R. Hofstadter et The Fluid Analogies Research Group.
Fluids Concepts and Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought.
Basic Books, New York, 1995.
Hofstadter et McGraw1993
D. R. Hofstadter et G. McGraw.
Letter Spirit: An Emergent Model of the Perception and Creation of Alphabetic Style.
Rapport Technique 68, Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition, Indiana University, Feb 1993.
Hofstadter et Mitchell1992
D. R. Hofstadter et M. Mitchell.
The Copycat Project: A Model of Mental Fluidity and Analogy-Making.
Dans Advances in Connectionnist and Neural Computation Theory, rédacteurs J. Barnden et K. Holyoak, volume 2, pages 31-113. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1992.
D. R. Hofstadter.
Gödel, Escher, Bach: an Eternal Golden Braid.
Basic Books, 1979.
D. R. Hofstadter.
The copycat project: An experiment in nondeterminism and creative analogies.
AI Memo 755, Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachussets Institute of Technology, 1984.
D. R. Hofstadter.
Metamagical Themas.
Basic Books, 1985.
D. R. Hofstadter.
Fluid analogies and human creativity.
Report 16, Center for Research on Concepts and Cognition, Indiana University, Bloomington, 1987.