Some examples of the use of viz. and related Latinate abbreviations.

  • viz. = videlicet, fr. Latin videre licet, ``It is easy to see''. Usually used in the sense of ``that is to say'' or ``to wit''. Often used in quotations to disambiguate an anaphor.
    We must therefore, Hume claims, ask ourselves the question: ``How experience gives rise to such a principle [viz. necessary causality]?''
  • q.v. = Latin quod vide, ``which see''.
    Kant makes a number of references here to David Hume's An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding (q.v.).
  • cf. = Latin confer, ``compare''.
    Kant's position, that `objective reality' (for him the world of appearances) is constructed by us, shares some interesting parallels with that of the material idealists (cf. Berkeley's A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge).
  • i.e. = Latin id est, ``that is''.
    I know that is a tree; i.e., I believe that to be tree, it is true that that is a tree, and I am justified in believing that to be a tree.